⚡ Diagnostic Criteria

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Diagnostic Criteria

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ADHD Diagnosis Criteria Explained

Bipolar disorder occurs in up to 2. Individuals with bipolar disorder experience mood swings that are less severe in intensity. During what is known as a hypomanic episode, a person may experience elevated mood, increased self-esteem, and a decreased need for sleep. Unlike a manic episode, these symptoms are not so severe as to impact daily functioning or cause psychotic symptoms. People experiencing an episode with mixed features may feel extreme sadness, guilt, and worthlessness, while at the same experiencing high energy, racing thoughts and speech, and overactivity. It is not uncommon during a mixed episode for a person to go from being exuberantly happy to be expressing suicidal thoughts in a matter of moments.

Getting diagnosed with a mental illness comes with a lot of questions, Psycom is here to answer them. Talking with a doctor or mental health professional is the first step in identifying bipolar disorder. Firstly, a doctor may perform a physical evaluation to rule out any other conditions that may be causing symptoms. To be diagnosed with bipolar disorder, a person must have experienced at least one episode of mania or hypomania. To be considered mania, the elevated, expansive, or irritable mood must last for at least one week and be present most of the day, nearly every day. To be considered hypomania, the mood must last at least four consecutive days and be present most of the day, almost every day.

During this period, three or more of the following symptoms must be present and represent a significant change from usual behavior:. The depressive side of bipolar disorder is characterized by a major depressive episode resulting in depressed mood or loss of interest or pleasure in life. The DSM-5 states that a person must experience five or more of the following symptoms in two weeks to be diagnosed with a major depressive episode:.

We all have good and bad days —sometimes we feel on top of the world and other days, if we lose a job, go through a bad break-up, or fall out with a friend, we may be down in the dumps. But have you ever gone to bed one night feeling euphoric and woken up the next morning to find you feel empty and hopeless? Have you ever noticed your high-energy levels and racing thoughts suddenly turn to feelings of worthlessness and an inability to experience pleasure doing the same things you once enjoyed? Several important features of bipolar disorder allow us to distinguish between the severe mental condition and the occasional mood swing. The first feature is whether the fluctuations in mood are caused by a situation, person, or event, or appear without cause.

Such a list is often generated by computer-aided diagnosis systems. The resultant diagnostic opinion by this method can be regarded more or less as a diagnosis of exclusion. Even if it does not result in a single probable disease or condition, it can at least rule out any imminently life-threatening conditions. Unless the provider is certain of the condition present, further medical tests, such as medical imaging, are performed or scheduled in part to confirm or disprove the diagnosis but also to document the patient's status and keep the patient's medical history up to date.

If unexpected findings are made during this process, the initial hypothesis may be ruled out and the provider must then consider other hypotheses. In a pattern recognition method the provider uses experience to recognize a pattern of clinical characteristics. This may be the primary method used in cases where diseases are "obvious", or the provider's experience may enable him or her to recognize the condition quickly. Theoretically, a certain pattern of signs or symptoms can be directly associated with a certain therapy, even without a definite decision regarding what is the actual disease, but such a compromise carries a substantial risk of missing a diagnosis which actually has a different therapy so it may be limited to cases where no diagnosis can be made.

The term diagnostic criteria designates the specific combination of signs and symptoms , and test results that the clinician uses to attempt to determine the correct diagnosis. Some examples of diagnostic criteria, also known as clinical case definitions , are:. Clinical decision support systems are interactive computer programs designed to assist health professionals with decision-making tasks. The clinician interacts with the software utilizing both the clinician's knowledge and the software to make a better analysis of the patients data than either human or software could make on their own.

Typically the system makes suggestions for the clinician to look through and the clinician picks useful information and removes erroneous suggestions. Overdiagnosis is the diagnosis of "disease" that will never cause symptoms or death during a patient's lifetime. Overdiagnosis occurs when a disease is diagnosed correctly, but the diagnosis is irrelevant. A correct diagnosis may be irrelevant because treatment for the disease is not available, not needed, or not wanted. Most people will experience at least one diagnostic error in their lifetime, according to a report by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine.

Causes and factors of error in diagnosis are: [12]. When making a medical diagnosis, a lag time is a delay in time until a step towards diagnosis of a disease or condition is made. Types of lag times are mainly:. The first recorded examples of medical diagnosis are found in the writings of Imhotep — BC in ancient Egypt the Edwin Smith Papyrus. Medical diagnosis or the actual process of making a diagnosis is a cognitive process.

A clinician uses several sources of data and puts the pieces of the puzzle together to make a diagnostic impression. The initial diagnostic impression can be a broad term describing a category of diseases instead of a specific disease or condition. After the initial diagnostic impression, the clinician obtains follow up tests and procedures to get more data to support or reject the original diagnosis and will attempt to narrow it down to a more specific level. Diagnostic procedures are the specific tools that the clinicians use to narrow the diagnostic possibilities. The plural of diagnosis is diagnoses.

The verb is to diagnose, and a person who diagnoses is called a diagnostician. Diagnosis can take many forms. It might be a management-naming or prognosis-naming exercise. It may indicate either degree of abnormality on a continuum or kind of abnormality in a classification. It's influenced by non-medical factors such as power, ethics and financial incentives for patient or doctor. It can be a brief summation or an extensive formulation, even taking the form of a story or metaphor. It might be a means of communication such as a computer code through which it triggers payment, prescription, notification, information or advice.

It might be pathogenic or salutogenic. It's generally uncertain and provisional. Once a diagnostic opinion has been reached, the provider is able to propose a management plan, which will include treatment as well as plans for follow-up. From this point on, in addition to treating the patient's condition, the provider can educate the patient about the etiology , progression, prognosis , other outcomes, and possible treatments of her or his ailments, as well as providing advice for maintaining health. A treatment plan is proposed which may include therapy and follow-up consultations and tests to monitor the condition and the progress of the treatment, if needed, usually according to the medical guidelines provided by the medical field on the treatment of the particular illness.

Relevant information should be added to the medical record of the patient. A failure to respond to treatments that would normally work may indicate a need for review of the diagnosis. Signs and symptoms Symptom Syndrome. Medical diagnosis Differential diagnosis Prognosis. Disease Eponymous disease Acronym or abbreviation. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Process to determine or identify a disease or disorder, which would account for a person's symptoms and signs. Main article: Differential diagnosis. Main article: Clinical case definition. Main article: Overdiagnosis. Further information: Medical error. Main article: History of medical diagnosis. Main article: Wiktionary:diagnosis. In Mengel, Mark B. Fundamentals of Clinical Practice 2nd ed. New York, N.

ISBN PMID S2CID The Washington Post. Archived from the original on Retrieved The New Yorker.

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