⭐⭐⭐⭐⭐ Much Ado About Nothing Gender Analysis

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Much Ado About Nothing Gender Analysis

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Much Ado About Nothing by William Shakespeare - Characters

Beatrice asks the messenger about Benedick, and mocks Benedick's ineptitude as a soldier. Leonato explains that "There is a kind of merry war betwixt Signor Benedick and her. On the soldiers' arrival, Leonato invites Don Pedro to stay for a month, and Benedick and Beatrice resume their "merry war". Pedro's illegitimate brother, Don John, is also introduced. Claudio's feelings for Hero are rekindled, and he informs Benedick of his intention to court her.

Benedick, who openly despises marriage, tries to dissuade him. Don Pedro encourages the marriage. Benedick swears that he will never marry. Don Pedro laughs at him, and tells him that he will when he has found the right person. A masquerade ball is planned. Therein a disguised Don Pedro woos Hero on Claudio's behalf. Don John uses this situation to sow chaos by telling Claudio that Don Pedro is wooing Hero for himself. Claudio rails against the entrapments of beauty. But the misunderstanding is later resolved, and Claudio is promised Hero's hand in marriage. Meanwhile, Benedick and Beatrice have danced together, trading disparaging remarks under cover of their masks. Benedick is stung at hearing himself described as "the prince's jester, a very dull fool", [5] and yearns to be spared the company of "Lady Tongue".

They arrange for Benedick to overhear a conversation in which they declare that Beatrice is madly in love with him but too afraid to tell him. Hero and Ursula likewise ensure that Beatrice overhears a conversation in which they themselves discuss Benedick's undying love for her. Both Benedick and Beatrice are delighted to think that they are the object of unrequited love , and both resolve to mend their faults and declare their love. Meanwhile, Don John plots to stop the wedding and embarrass his brother and wreak misery on Leonato and Claudio. He tells Don Pedro and Claudio that Hero is "disloyal", [5] and arranges for them to see his associate, Borachio, enter her bedchamber and engage amorously with her it is actually Hero's chambermaid.

Claudio and Don Pedro are duped, and Claudio vows to publicly humiliate Hero. The next day, at the wedding, Claudio denounces Hero before the stunned guests, and he storms off with Don Pedro. Hero faints. A humiliated Leonato expresses his wish for her to die. The presiding friar intervenes, believing Hero innocent. He suggests that the family fake Hero's death to inspire Claudio with remorse. Prompted by the day's stressful events, Benedick and Beatrice confess their love for each other. Beatrice then asks Benedick to kill Claudio as proof of his devotion. Benedick hesitates but is swayed. Leonato and Antonio blame Claudio for Hero's supposed death and threaten him, to little effect. Benedick arrives and challenges him to a duel.

On the night of Don John's treachery, the local Watch overheard Borachio and Conrade discussing their "treason" [5] and "most dangerous piece of lechery that ever was known in the commonwealth", [5] and arrested them therefore. Despite their ineptness headed by constable Dogberry , they obtain a confession and inform Leonato of Hero's innocence. Don John has fled, but a force is sent to capture him. Claudio, remorseful and thinking Hero dead, agrees to her father's demand that he marry Antonio's daughter, "almost the copy of my child that's dead".

After Claudio swears to marry this other bride, this bride is revealed to be Hero. Claudio is overjoyed. Beatrice and Benedick publicly confess their love for each other. Don Pedro taunts "Benedick the married man", [5] and Benedick counters that he finds the Prince sad, advising him: "Get thee a wife". The couples dance and celebrate as the play ends. In the sixteenth century, stories of lovers deceived into believing each other false were common currency in northern Italy. The earliest printed text states that Much Ado About Nothing was "sundry times publicly acted" prior to It is likely that the play made its debut in the autumn or winter of — The play is predominantly written in prose. Benedick and Beatrice quickly became the main interest of the play.

They are considered the leading roles even though their relationship is given equal or lesser weight in the script than Claudio and Hero's situation. It seems that comic drama could be a means of calming such anxieties. Several characters seem to be obsessed with the idea that a man has no way to know if his wife is faithful and that women can take full advantage of this. Many of the males easily believe that Hero is impure, and even her father readily condemns her with very little proof.

This motif runs through the play, often referring to horns a symbol of cuckoldry. In contrast, Balthasar's song " Sigh No More " tells women to accept men's infidelity and continue to live joyfully. Some interpretations say that Balthasar sings poorly, undercutting the message. In the Branagh film, Balthasar sings it beautifully: it is given a prominent role in the opening and finale, and the message seems to be embraced by the women.

There are many examples of deception and self-deception in the play. The games and tricks played on people often have the best intentions: to make people fall in love, or to help someone get what they want, or to lead someone to realize their mistake. These modes of deceit play into a complementary theme of emotional manipulation, the ease with which the characters' sentiments are redirected and their propensities exploited as a means to an end. Characters are constantly pretending to be others or are otherwise mistaken for others.

Margaret is mistaken for Hero, leading to Hero's disgrace. During a masked ball in which everyone must wear a mask , Beatrice rants about Benedick to a masked man who is actually Benedick, but she acts unaware of this. During the same celebration, Don Pedro pretends to be Claudio and courts Hero for him. After Hero is proclaimed dead, Leonato orders Claudio to marry his "niece" who is actually Hero. Another motif is the play on the words nothing and noting. These were near- homophones in Shakespeare's day. Nothing is also a double entendre : "an O-thing" or "n othing" or "no thing" was Elizabethan slang for " vagina ", derived from women having "nothing" between their legs.

This attention is mentioned directly several times, particularly concerning "seeming", "fashion", and outward impressions. Claudio: Benedick, didst thou note the daughter of Signor Leonato? Benedick: I noted her not, but I looked on her. Borachio: Thou knowest that the fashion of a doublet, or a hat, or a cloak is nothing to a man. A triple play on words in which noting signifies noticing, musical notes, and nothing, occurs at 2.

Or if thou wilt hold longer argument, Do it in notes. Balthasar: Note this before my notes: There's not a note of mine that's worth the noting. Don Pedro: Why, these are very crotchets that he speaks —. Don Pedro's last line can be understood to mean: "Pay attention to your music and nothing else! Claudio: I pray you leave me. Benedick: Ho, now you strike like the blind man — 'twas the boy that stole your meat, and you'll beat the post. Claudio: Now you talk of a sheet of paper, I remember a pretty jest your daughter told us of. Leonato: O, when she had writ it and was reading it over, she found Benedick and Beatrice between the sheet? The play was very popular in its early decades, and it continues to be one of Shakespeare's most performed plays.

In , Helena Faucit played Beatrice at the very beginning of her career at Covent Garden , opposite Charles Kemble as Benedick in his farewell performances. The title of the album is also a quotation from the play. The first cinematic version in English may have been the silent film directed by Phillips Smalley. The first sound version in English released to cinemas was the highly acclaimed film by Kenneth Branagh. There's a great spirit gone! Thus did I desire it: What our contempt doth often hurl from us, We wish it ours again; the present pleasure, By revolution lowering, does become The opposite of itself: she's good, being gone: The hand could pluck her back that shov'd her on.

Fitz outwardly claims that early criticism of Antony and Cleopatra is "colored by the sexist assumptions the critics have brought with them to their reading. These criticisms are only a few examples of how the critical views of Egypt's "femininity" and Rome's "masculinity" have changed over time and how the development of feminist theory has helped in widening the discussion.

Relativity and ambiguity are prominent ideas in the play, and the audience is challenged to come to conclusions about the ambivalent nature of many of the characters. The relationship between Antony and Cleopatra can easily be read as one of love or lust; their passion can be construed as being wholly destructive but also showing elements of transcendence. Cleopatra might be said to kill herself out of love for Antony, or because she has lost political power. A major theme running through the play is opposition. Throughout the play, oppositions between Rome and Egypt, love and lust, and masculinity and femininity are emphasised, subverted, and commented on. One of Shakespeare's most famous speeches, drawn almost verbatim from North 's translation of Plutarch's Lives , Enobarbus' description of Cleopatra on her barge, is full of opposites resolved into a single meaning, corresponding with these wider oppositions that characterise the rest of the play:.

The barge she sat in, like a burnish'd throne, Burn'd on the water Act 2, Scene 2. The play is accurately structured with paradox and ambivalence in order to convey the antitheses that make Shakespeare's work remarkable. It may be perceived as opposition between word and deed but not to be confused with "duality. All is lost; This foul Egyptian hath betrayed me: My fleet hath yielded to the foe; and yonder They cast their caps up and carouse together Like friends long lost. Triple-turn'd whore! Bid them all fly; For when I am revenged upon my charm, I have done all. Bid them all fly; begone. All come to this? The hearts That spaniel'd me at heels, to whom I gave Their wishes, do discandy, melt their sweets On blossoming Caesar; and this pine is bark'd, That overtopp'd them all.

Betray'd I am: O this false soul of Egypt! What, Eros, Eros! However, he then strangely says to Cleopatra: "All that is won and lost. Give me a kiss. Even this repays me" [48] 3. Antony's speech conveys pain and anger, but he acts in opposition to his emotions and words, all for the love of Cleopatra. Literary critic Joyce Carol Oates explains: "Antony's agony is curiously muted for someone who has achieved and lost so much. Moreover, due to the flow of constant changing emotions throughout the play: "the characters do not know each other, nor can we know them, any more clearly than we know ourselves". Another example of ambivalence in Antony and Cleopatra is in the opening act of the play when Cleopatra asks Anthony: "Tell me how much you love.

Betrayal is a recurring theme throughout the play. At one time or another, almost every character betrays their country, ethics, or a companion. However, certain characters waver between betrayal and loyalty. This struggle is most apparent among the actions of Cleopatra, Enobarbus, and most importantly Antony. Antony mends ties with his Roman roots and alliance with Caesar by entering into a marriage with Octavia, however he returns to Cleopatra. Diana Kleiner points out "Anthony's perceived betrayal of Rome was greeted with public calls for war with Egypt". It is twice Cleopatra abandons Antony during battle and whether out of fear or political motives, she deceived Antony.

When Thidias, Caesar's messenger, tells Cleopatra Caesar will show her mercy if she will relinquish Antony, she is quick to respond:. Tell him I am prompt To lay my crown at 's feet, and there to kneel. Shakespeare critic Sara Deats says Cleopatra's betrayal fell "on the successful fencing with Octavius that leaves her to be "noble to [herself]". Enobarbus, Antony's most devoted friend, betrays Antony when he deserts him in favour for Caesar. He exclaims, "I fight against thee! Although he abandoned Antony, critic Kent Cartwright claims Enobarbus' death "uncovers his greater love" for him considering it was caused by the guilt of what he had done to his friend thus adding to the confusion of the characters' loyalty and betrayal that previous critics have also discovered.

The characters' loyalty and validity of promises are constantly called into question. The perpetual swaying between alliances strengthens the ambiguity and uncertainty amid the characters' loyalty and disloyalty. As a play concerning the relationship between two empires, the presence of a power dynamic is apparent and becomes a recurring theme. Antony and Cleopatra battle over this dynamic as heads of state, yet the theme of power also resonates in their romantic relationship.

The Roman ideal of power lies in a political nature taking a base in economical control. Those his goodly eyes, That o'er the files and musters of the war Have glowed like plated mars, now bend, now turn The office and devotion of their view Upon a tawny front. His captain's heart, Which in the scuffles of greatness hath burst The buckles on his breast, reneges all tempers, And is becomes the bellows and the fan To cool a gipsy's lust. Cleopatra's character is slightly unpindown-able, as her character identity retains a certain aspect of mystery. She embodies the mystical, exotic, and dangerous nature of Egypt as the "serpent of old Nile". For her own person, It beggared all description. She did lie In her pavilion—cloth of gold, of tissue— O'er-picturing that Venus where we see The fancy outwork nature.

This mysteriousness attached with the supernatural not only captures the audience and Antony, but also, draws all other characters' focus. As a center of conversation when not present in the scene, Cleopatra is continually a central point, therefore demanding the control of the stage. Manipulation and the quest for power are very prominent themes not only in the play but specifically in the relationship between Antony and Cleopatra. Both utilise language to undermine the power of the other and to heighten their own sense of power. Cleopatra uses language to undermine Antony's assumed authority over her.

Cleopatra's "'Roman' language of command works to undermine Antony's authority. In their first exchange in Act I, scene 1, Cleopatra says to Antony, "I'll set a bourn how far to be beloved. Antony's language suggests his struggle for power against Cleopatra's dominion. Antony's "obsessive language concerned with structure, organization, and maintenance for the self and empire in repeated references to 'measure,' 'property,' and 'rule' express unconscious anxieties about boundary integrity and violation.

He also mentions losing himself in dotage—"himself" referring to Antony as Roman ruler and authority over people including Cleopatra. Cleopatra also succeeds in causing Antony to speak in a more theatrical sense and therefore undermine his own true authority. Yachnin's article focuses on Cleopatra's usurping of Antony's authority through her own and his language, while Hooks' article gives weight to Antony's attempts to assert his authority through rhetoric. Both articles indicate the lovers' awareness of each other's quests for power.

Despite awareness and the political power struggle existent in the play, Antony and Cleopatra both fail to achieve their goals by the play's conclusion. Antony and Cleopatra is essentially a male-dominated play in which the character of Cleopatra takes significance as one of few female figures and definitely the only strong female character. As Oriana Palusci says in her article "When Boys or Women Tell Their Dreams: Cleopatra and the Boy Actor", "Cleopatra constantly occupies the centre, if not of the stage, certainly of the discourse, often charged with sexual innuendos and disparaging tirades, of the male Roman world". What is said about Cleopatra is not always what one would normally say about a ruler; the image that is created makes the audience expect "to see on stage not a noble Sovereign, but a dark, dangerous, evil, sensual and lewd creature who has harnessed the 'captain's heart".

Phyllis Rackin points out that one of the most descriptive scenes of Cleopatra is spoken by Enobarbus: "in his famous set speech, Enobarbus evokes Cleopatra's arrival on the Cynus". It is in this way that "before the boy [playing Cleopatra] can evoke Cleopatra's greatness, he must remind us that he cannot truly represent it". Rackin points out that "it is a commonplace of the older criticism that Shakespeare had to rely upon his poetry and his audience's imagination to evoke Cleopatra's greatness because he knew the boy actor could not depict it convincingly". The constant comments of the Romans about Cleopatra often undermine her, representing the Roman thought on the foreign and particularly of Egyptians. From the perspective of the reason-driven Romans, Shakespeare's "Egyptian queen repeatedly violates the rules of decorum".

And yet she is also shown as having real power in the play. Scholars have speculated that Shakespeare's original intention was to have Antony appear in Cleopatra's clothes and vice versa in the beginning of the play. This possible interpretation seems to perpetuate the connections being made between gender and power. Gordon P. Jones elaborates on the importance of this detail:. Such a saturnalian exchange of costumes in the opening scene would have opened up a number of important perspectives for the play's original audience.

It would immediately have established the sportiveness of the lovers. It would have prepared the ground for Cleopatra's subsequent insistence on appearing "for a man" III. The evidence that such a costume change was intended includes Enobarbus' false identification of Cleopatra as Antony:. Enobarbus could have made this error because he was used to seeing Antony in the queen's garments.

It can also be speculated that Philo was referring to Antony cross-dressing in Act 1, scene If Shakespeare had indeed intended for Antony to crossdress, it would have drawn even more similarities between Antony and Hercules, a comparison that many scholars have noted many times before. The Omphale myth is an exploration of gender roles in Greek society. Shakespeare might have paid homage to this myth as a way of exploring gender roles in his own.

However, it has been noted that, while women dressing as men i. Antony and Cleopatra also contains self-references to the crossdressing as it would have been performed historically on the London stage. Many scholars interpret these lines as a metatheatrical reference to Shakespeare's own production, and by doing so comments on his own stage. Shakespeare critics such as Tracey Sedinger interpret this as Shakespeare's critique of the London stage, which, by the perpetuation of boy actors playing the part of the woman, serves to establish the superiority of the male spectator's sexuality. It is in this manner that the London stage cultivated in its audience a chaste and obedient female subject, while positioning male sexuality as dominant.

Shakespeare critics argue that the metatheatrical references in Antony and Cleopatra seem to critique this trend and the presentation of Cleopatra as a sexually empowered individual supports their argument that Shakespeare seems to be questioning the oppression of female sexuality in London society. The boy actors portraying female sexuality on the London stage contradicted such a simple ontology. Critics such as Rackin interpret Shakespeare's metatheatrical references to the crossdressing on stage with less concern for societal elements and more of a focus on the dramatic ramifications.

Rackin argues in her article on "Shakespeare's Boy Cleopatra" that Shakespeare manipulates the crossdressing to highlight a motif of the play—recklessness—which is discussed in the article as the recurring elements of acting without properly considering the consequences. Shakespeare, utilizing the metatheatrical reference to his own stage, perpetuates his motif of recklessness by purposefully shattering "the audience's acceptance of the dramatic illusion".

Other critics argue that the crossdressing as it occurs in the play is less of a mere convention, and more of an embodiment of dominant power structures. Critics such as Charles Forker argue that the boy actors were a result of what "we may call androgyny". The textual motif of empire within Antony and Cleopatra has strong gendered and erotic undercurrents. Antony, the Roman soldier characterised by a certain effeminacy, is the main article of conquest, falling first to Cleopatra and then to Caesar Octavius. That Cleopatra takes on the role of male aggressor in her relationship with Antony should not be surprising; after all, "a culture attempting to dominate another culture will [often] endow itself with masculine qualities and the culture it seeks to dominate with feminine ones" [73] —appropriately, the queen's romantic assault is frequently imparted in a political, even militaristic fashion.

Antony's subsequent loss of manhood seemingly "signifies his lost Romanness, and Act 3, Scene 10, is a virtual litany of his lost and feminised self, his "wounder chance". Little Jr. By the time Antony tries to use his sword to kill himself, it amounts to little more than a stage prop". Having failed to perform Roman masculinity and virtue, Antony's only means with which he might "write himself into Rome's imperial narrative and position himself at the birth of empire" is to cast himself in the feminine archetype of the sacrificial virgin; "once [he] understands his failed virtus , his failure to be Aeneas, he then tries to emulate Dido ". James J Greene writes on the subject: "If one of the seminally powerful myths in the cultural memory of our past is Aeneas' rejection of his African queen in order to go on and found the Roman Empire , than it is surely significant that Shakespeare's [ sic ] For Antony He is incapable of "occupying the Her mastery is unparalleled when it comes to the seduction of certain powerful individuals, but popular criticism supports the notion that "as far as Cleopatra is concerned, the main thrust of the play's action might be described as a machine especially devised to bend her to the Roman will But instead of driving her down to ignominy, the Roman power forces her upward to nobility".

Arthur L. Little, in agitative fashion, suggests that the desire to overcome the queen has a corporeal connotation: "If a black—read foreign—man raping a white woman encapsulates an iconographic truth Antony and Cleopatra deals ambiguously with the politics of imperialism and colonization. Critics have long been invested in untangling the web of political implications that characterise the play. Interpretations of the work often rely on an understanding of Egypt and Rome as they respectively signify Elizabethan ideals of East and West, contributing to a long-standing conversation about the play's representation of the relationship between imperializing western countries and colonised eastern cultures.

Indeed, Cleopatra's suicide has been interpreted as suggesting an indomitable quality in Egypt, and reaffirming Eastern culture as a timeless contender to the West. Octavius Caesar is seen as Shakespeare's portrayal of an ideal governor, though perhaps an unfavourable friend or lover, and Rome is emblematic of reason and political excellence. More contemporary scholarship on the play, however, has typically recognised the allure of Egypt for Antony and Cleopatra ' s audiences. Egypt's magnetism and seeming cultural primacy over Rome have been explained by efforts to contextualise the political implications of the play within its period of production.

The various protagonists' ruling styles have been identified with rulers contemporary to Shakespeare. For example, there appears to be continuity between the character of Cleopatra and the historical figure of Queen Elizabeth I , [77] and the unfavourable light cast on Caesar has been explained as deriving from the claims of various 16th-century historians. The more recent influence of New Historicism and post-colonial studies have yielded readings of Shakespeare that typify the play as subversive, or challenging the status quo of Western imperialism. The critic Abigail Scherer's claim that "Shakespeare's Egypt is a holiday world" [79] recalls the criticisms of Egypt put forth by earlier scholarship and disputes them.

Scherer and critics who recognise the wide appeal of Egypt have connected the spectacle and glory of Cleopatra's greatness with the spectacle and glory of the theatre itself. Plays, as breeding grounds of idleness, were subject to attack by all levels of authority in the s; [80] the play's celebration of pleasure and idleness in a subjugated Egypt makes it plausible to draw parallels between Egypt and the heavily censored theatre culture in England.

In the context of England's political atmosphere, Shakespeare's representation of Egypt, as the greater source of poetry and imagination, resists support for 16th century colonial practices. England during the Renaissance found itself in an analogous position to the early Roman Republic. Shakespeare's audience may have made the connection between England's westward expansion and Antony and Cleopatra ' s convoluted picture of Roman imperialism. In support of the reading of Shakespeare's play as subversive, it has also been argued that 16th century audiences would have interpreted Antony and Cleopatra ' s depiction of different models of government as exposing inherent weaknesses in an absolutist, imperial, and by extension monarchical, political state.

One of the ways to read the imperialist themes of the play is through a historical, political context with an eye for intertextuality. Many scholars suggest that Shakespeare possessed an extensive knowledge of the story of Antony and Cleopatra through the historian Plutarch, and used Plutarch's account as a blueprint for his own play. A closer look at this intertextual link reveals that Shakespeare used, for instance, Plutarch's assertion that Antony claimed a genealogy that led back to Hercules, and constructed a parallel to Cleopatra by often associating her with Dionysus in his play.

For instance, the quick exchange of dialogue might suggest a more dynamic political conflict. Furthermore, certain characteristics of the characters, like Antony whose "legs bestrid the ocean" 5. Furthermore, because of the unlikelihood that Shakespeare would have had direct access to the Greek text of Plutarch's Parallel Lives and probably read it through a French translation from a Latin translation, his play constructs Romans with an anachronistic Christian sensibility that might have been influenced by St.

Augustine 's Confessions among others. As Miles writes, the ancient world would not have been aware of interiority and the contingence of salvation upon conscience until Augustine. So, Shakespeare's characters in Antony and Cleopatra , particularly Cleopatra in her belief that her own suicide is an exercise of agency, exhibit a Christian understanding of salvation. Another example of deviance from the source material is how Shakespeare characterises the rule of Antony and Cleopatra.

While Plutarch singles out the "order of exclusive society" that the lovers surrounded themselves with—a society with a specifically defined and clear understanding of the hierarchies of power as determined by birth and status—Shakespeare's play seems more preoccupied with the power dynamics of pleasure as a main theme throughout the play. Pleasure serves as a differentiating factor between Cleopatra and Antony, between Egypt and Rome, and can be read as the fatal flaw of the heroes if Antony and Cleopatra is a tragedy.

For Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra , the exclusivity and superiority supplied by pleasure created the disconnect between the ruler and the subjects. Critics suggest that Shakespeare did similar work with these sources in Othello , Julius Caesar , and Coriolanus. The concept of luck, or Fortune, is frequently referenced throughout Antony and Cleopatra , portrayed as an elaborate "game" that the characters participate in. Shakespeare represents Fortune through elemental and astronomical imagery that recalls the characters' awareness of the "unreliability of the natural world". Antony eventually realises that he, like other characters, is merely "Fortune's knave," a mere card in the game of Chance rather than a player.

The manner in which the characters deal with their luck is of great importance, therefore, as they may destroy their chances of luck by taking advantage of their fortune to excessive lengths without censoring their actions, Antony did. While Fortune does play a large role in the characters' lives, they do have ability to exercise free will, however; as Fortune is not as restrictive as Fate. Antony's actions suggest this, as he is able to use his free will to take advantage of his luck by choosing his own actions.

Like the natural imagery used to describe Fortune, scholar Michael Lloyd characterises it as an element itself, which causes natural occasional upheaval. This implies that fortune is a force of nature that is greater than mankind, and cannot be manipulated. The 'game of chance' that Fortune puts into play can be related to that of politics, expressing the fact that the characters must play their luck in both fortune and politics to identify a victor. The motif of "card playing" has a political undertone, as it relates to the nature of political dealings. Although Caesar and Antony may play political cards with each other, their successes rely somewhat on Chance, which hints at a certain limit to the control they have over political affairs.

Furthermore, the constant references to astronomical bodies and "sublunar" imagery [88] connote a Fate-like quality to the character of Fortune, implying a lack of control on behalf of the characters. Although the characters do exercise free will to a certain extent, their success in regard to their actions ultimately depends on the luck that Fortune bestows upon them. The movement of the "moon" and the "tides" is frequently mentioned throughout the play, such as when Cleopatra states that, upon Antony's death, there is nothing of importance left "beneath the moon. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Antony and Cleopatra disambiguation. Play by William Shakespeare.

Mark Antony — Roman general and one of the three joint leaders, or "triumvirs", who rule the Roman Republic after the assassination of Julius Caesar in 44 B. Further information: Cultural depictions of Cleopatra. ISBN Leeds In Smith, Gordon R. Essays on Shakespeare. In Madelaine, Richard ed. Antony and Cleopatra. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press. Leo, Trubner and Company, London. London: Thomas Vaueroullier and John Wright. The Cambridge Introduction to Shakespeare. Cambridge University Press. In Hattaway, Michael ed.

In Wells, Stanley ed. The Cambridge Companion to Shakespeare Studies. Braunmuller and Michael Hattaway eds. In de Grazia, Margreta; Wells, Stanley eds. The Cambridge Companion to Shakespeare. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. William Shakespeare: A Textual Companion. Ania Loomba New York: W. New York: Harper. ISBN , image plates and captions between pp. Winter Eliot and the Fetishization of Shakespeare's Queen of the Nile". Journal of Modern Literature. JSTOR S2CID Theatre Journal. Shakespeare Quarterly. Poetics Today. Tour Egypt. Contemporary Theatre Review.

Comparative Drama. Sara Munson Deats. New York: Routledge, Shakespeare and the Geography of Difference. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Before Orientalism: London's Theatre of the East — Cambridge, U. Literary Orientalism, Postcolonialism, and Universalism. New York: Peter Lang, Comparative Drama Newark: University of Delaware, Women's Studies. A Critical Study , trans. Cambridge UP. William Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra. Chelsea House. Modern Language Quarterly. E Cleopatra and Rome. Harvard University Press.

Benedick and Beatrice quickly became the main interest of the play. Much Ado About Nothing Gender Analysis, certain characteristics Much Ado About Nothing Gender Analysis the characters, like Antony Women In Alexandria And Pompeii "legs bestrid the ocean" 5. Hero and Ursula Much Ado About Nothing Gender Analysis ensure that Beatrice overhears a conversation in which they themselves discuss Benedick's undying Much Ado About Nothing Gender Analysis for her. A fool and a madman are the wisest characters. Cleopatra's "'Roman' language of command works Much Ado About Nothing Gender Analysis undermine Antony's authority.