✪✪✪ War Of 1812 Outline
Army deal with sick and wounded soldiers. Review: Raisin In The Sun By Lorraine Hansberry black Missourians made Five Components Of Physical Education progress in social status during War Of 1812 Outline postwar War Of 1812 Outline. Army departmental commander William S. Summary: College Athletes Should Not Be Paid Jackson becomes Major War Of 1812 Outline. The employment discrimination of the postwar period continued well into the s and s. Green Company War Of 1812 Outline Mexico, War Of 1812 Outline. On October 17, Dallas calls for War Of 1812 Outline to establish a national War Of 1812 Outline to finance the War Of 1812 Outline and to increase taxes.
The War of 1812 Summary
He signs the bill into law on April The British, meanwhile, can now turn their complete attention to war with the United States. Madison convenes his cabinet to establish a special military district for the protection of Washington and Baltimore, placing it under the command of Brigadier General William Winder. With momentum on their side, and in retaliation for the torching of Canadian Parliament buildings, British forces attack and burn Washington, D. The city had been evacuated before the British arrived with President James Madison and his administration leaving the capital city to flee the invading soldiers.
The war began after President Madison requested a declaration of war from Congress to protect American ships on the open seas and to try to stop the British practice of impressments, the seizure of U. The first years of the war proved disastrous for the United States. By the fall of , the British had defeated American forces in Detroit and in western New York; in fact much of the Northwest Territory had fallen to the British. The Americans began to have military success in the spring of when the U. Navy defeated the British fleet on Lake Erie and U. Events swung back against the Americans in the late spring on as the British went on the offensive.
British ships raided American ports from Georgia to Maine. They encountered little resistance along the way. James Monroe, who served as Madison's secretary of state and of defense, led a scouting party to report on the British advance. First Lady Dolley Madison resisted the calls to evacuate. When she finally left, she made sure that a portrait of George Washington by Gilbert Stuart was removed from the White House and stored safely. She also took several important cabinet documents with her when she departed. As the British troops headed toward to capital, Monroe stayed to help with the city's evacuation. Once the British troops entered the city, they torched the White House and most other federal buildings in retaliation for the burning of the Canadian Parliament buildings in York.
The United States was ultimately victorious in the War of , and the Treaty of Ghent was signed by both countries in December Washington, D. Following the sack of Washington, U. Monroe will serve as secretary of both war and state until the end of the war. Alexander J. Dallas is appointed secretary of treasury, replacing the inept George W. On October 17, Dallas calls for Congress to establish a national bank to finance the war and to increase taxes. The Senate passes a new bank bill on December 9. The Massachusetts General Court calls a convention of New England states, whose livelihood depends largely on international trade, to coordinate regional grievances against the federal government.
From December 15 through January 5, delegates from some New England states meet in Hartford, Connecticut, to discuss grievances against the federal government and to provide alternative solutions to talk of secession among New England radicals. Twenty-two delegates at the Hartford Convention issue a report condemning the federal government for failing to defend New England. The report recommends that states negotiate arrangements with the federal government for their defense, and proposes constitutional amendments to protect the region's increasingly minority status in the Union. Following news of Jackson's victory at New Orleans, the U. The Federalist Party suffers as a result. News of the Treaty will reach the United States in February The House of Representatives passes an amended bank bill as a compromise between Federalists and anti-bank Republicans.
The bill is nevertheless unsatisfactory to Madison and Secretary of the Treasury Dallas. Madison vetoes the bank bill on January Jackson, leading 4, militiamen, citizens, and regular soldiers, wins a resounding victory over 6, British forces in the Battle of New Orleans. Many of Jackson's troops are volunteers, among them free blacks and slaves. There are just a dozen American casualties to 2, British casualties.
Jackson's victory, along with his success against the Creeks, makes him a national hero. Madison signs a bill allowing the President to call up 40, state troops. Congress has limited the bill, however, by authorizing troops to serve only in their home states with the consent of state governors. News arrives of the December Treaty of Ghent that ends the War of The Senate ratifies the Treaty of Ghent on February With Madison having secured a declaration of war on Algiers, Captain Stephen Decatur leads a flotilla from New York against the Mediterranean pirates, who attack American ships during the War of Algiers surrenders on June Gallatin negotiates a commercial convention with Britain, further signifying the potential for the United States to play an important role in international trade and industrialization.
Madison presents his seventh annual message to Congress, advocating military streamlining, a new national bank, protective tariffs to promote industry, and internal improvements. Madison signs a bill re-chartering a new national bank in Philadelphia. The charter is set for a twenty-one year term. Monroe receives electoral votes to King's Madison delivers his eighth annual address to Congress, calling for vigilance in foreign affairs, internal improvements, and the restructuring of the judiciary and executive offices. Grant Rutherford B. Hayes James A. Garfield Chester A. Roosevelt Harry S. Truman Dwight D. Eisenhower John F. Kennedy Lyndon B. Bush Bill Clinton George W. Help inform the discussion Support the Miller Center. University of Virginia Miller Center.
Breadcrumb U. February 8, The presidential election. March 1, March 4, James Madison is inaugurated as the fourth President of the United States. April 19, August 1, January 3, April 16, May 1, Macon's Bill Number 2. August 5, October 27, Occupation of West Florida. November 2, February 1, March 20, Attitudes toward Britain. May 16, June 23, End of Orders in Council.
July 2, Address to the People of the United States. Louis was held at the eastern doors of the courthouse, and several contemporary sources record family separation there; one St. Louisan recorded that a woman there frequently bought infant slaves from the arms of their mothers to raise and sell at a profit later. Outspoken opponents of slavery, though a small minority in Missouri before the Civil War convinced many people that slavery had to end. They were usually based in or near St Louis.
Among these opponents was John Clark , an anti-slavery Methodist itinerant preacher who lived in Missouri during its territorial period. Park , founder of Parkville, Missouri , published his antislavery views in the local Parkville Luminary in ; in response, his newspaper offices were raided by a mob and its presses were destroyed. Missouri politicians who opposed slavery took care to avoid political repercussions. Louisans B. Gratz Brown , Henry Boernstein , and Frank Blair , who were representative of the heavily liberal, German population of their city.
The Underground Railroad , an informal network of operations to remove slaves to freedom, operated within Missouri during the s and s. In , Illinois Senator Stephen Douglas proposed a bill organizing the Kansas and Nebraska territories and allowing the people of the territories to decide through popular sovereignty whether to permit slavery. Atchison and former Attorney General B. Stringfellow , encouraged Missourians to settle in the newly opened lands in as a bulwark against antislavery settlers arriving from New England. Although the territorial governor of Kansas had declared that only Kansas residents be permitted to vote, some 1, Missourians crossed the border in November to vote in the Congressional election.
By , antislavery immigrants began arriving in force to Kansas, and upon arrival they refused to acknowledge the fraudulently elected proslavery government. During the years of and , tensions erupted into open warfare between proslavery and antislavery forces along the border. By , a substantial population of antislavery settlers had arrived in Kansas, and their votes overwhelmed those of the proslavery Missourians who crossed the border for the October territorial election. Beginning in , the party structure and political governance of Missouri, like much of the country, underwent significant changes. Rollins , but he was ultimately defeated in a close election by another anti-Benton Democrat, Robert M. In April , Claiborne Fox Jackson secured the Democratic Party nomination for Missouri governor in a close intraparty convention vote.
Douglas for president, although he personally sympathized with the Southern Democrat John C. Running up to the November election for president, Jackson continued to support Stephen Douglas, but he made no effort to campaign for him in Missouri. Louis and a scarcity of currency in the surrounding area. Louis held the key to control of the state, while control of St. Louis depended upon control of its federal arsenal. The secessionists' great rivals for control of St. Louis were Frank P. Filley, the Free Soil mayor of the city. Louis Police Department, effectively placing the police under state control. Louis to recruit a secessionist military unit known as the Minute Men. Bell, who gave assurances that the arsenal would be turned over to the state forces.
When elections for representatives to the state convention called for by Jackson, voters overwhelmingly selected men running under pro-Union labels. When the convention met in March , it ultimately selected Hamilton R. Gamble , a retired lawyer, to write the report of its findings. Congress and of a national convention to preserve slavery; it recommended that the federal government remove its forces from seceded states to avoid military conflict. The beginning of hostilities at Fort Sumter led President Lincoln to request 75, volunteers from the states; however, Governor Jackson flatly rejected the request for 4, troops from Missouri.
Army departmental commander William S. Harney , who had been viewed by Blair as too slow to react to the threat of the militia. Within weeks, Lyon had sent surplus weapons from the arsenal to safer locations in Illinois and mustered an additional ten thousand soldiers under his command to defend the state. In what became known as the Camp Jackson Affair , Union forces marched to the militia camp named for Governor Jackson , encircled it, and took the militia prisoners without a fight. After Camp Jackson, the General Assembly felt pressed to act against the Union; it quickly passed laws bills enrolling all able men into the state militia and granting funds to it.
Louis after having been captured by rebel forces in Virginia; he was released after refusing to align with them, then persuaded the War Department that he would hold Missouri in the Union. Jackson continued during mid to reorganize and train the state militia, which had taken on the name of the Missouri State Guard. Blair received this permission on May 20, the same day Harney concluded a negotiated settlement with Sterling Price regarding troop movements in Missouri. Louis, while Harney would refrain from troop movements into rural Missouri. Unionists in St. Louis also were perturbed by the agreement and reports indicating the harassment of outstate Unionists.
Rather than concede to the State of Missouri the right to demand that my Government shall not enlist troops within her limits, or bring troops into the State whenever it pleases, or move its troops at its own will into, our of, or through the State; rather than concede to the State of Missouri for one single instant the right to dictate to my Government in any matter however unimportant, I would see you, and you, and you, and every man, woman and child in the State, dead and buried.
This means war. Jackson and Price quickly retreated to Jefferson City, planning their actions and only stopping to burn bridges at the Gasconade and Osage rivers. Price and the main part of the Confederate militia, meanwhile, had moved from Boonville after hearing that Union forces had moved on Lexington, Missouri , which Price thought crucial to the success of secession in the state. In pursuit of Price and the state guard, Lyon ordered a St. Louis detachment commanded by Franz Sigel to move to southwest Missouri in an attempt to prevent Price's guard from meeting with the army of Confederate General Benjamin McCulloch , then operating in Arkansas.
Joseph , then headed south to Lexington in pursuit of Price. Joseph, thereby securing northern Missouri for the Union. The majority of St. Louis business leaders supported the Union and rejected efforts by Confederate sympathizers to take control of the St. Louis Chamber of Commerce in January Federal authorities intervened in this struggle but the conflict splintered the Chamber of Commerce into two organizations. The pro-Unionists finally gained the ascendancy and St. Louis became a major supply base for the Union forces in the entire Mississippi Valley. Following the success at Wilson's Creek, southern forces pushed northward and captured the strong garrison at the first Battle of Lexington. Federal forces contrived to campaign to retake Missouri, causing the Southern forces to retreat from the state and head for Arkansas and later Mississippi.
In Arkansas, the Missourians fought at the battle of Pea Ridge, meeting defeat. In Mississippi, elements of the Missouri State Guard participated in the struggles at Corinth and Iuka , where they suffered heavy losses. In , Union General John C. Fremont issued a proclamation that freed slaves who had been owned by those that had taken up arms against the Union. Lincoln immediately reversed this unauthorized action. Secessionists tried to form their own state government, joining the Confederacy and establishing a Confederate government in exile first in Neosho , Missouri and later in Texas at Marshall, Texas.
By the end of the war, Missouri had supplied , troops for the Union Army and 40, troops for the Confederate Army. During the Civil War, Charles D. Drake a former Democrat, became a fierce opponent of slavery, and a leader of the Radical Republicans. In to he proposed without success the immediate and uncompensated emancipation of slaves.
By Drake had built up his Radical faction and called for immediate emancipation, a new constitution, and a system of systematic disfranchisement of all Confederate sympathizers in Missouri. In , Sterling Price plotted to attack Missouri, launching his raid on the state. Striking in the southeastern portion of the state, Price moved north, and attempted to capture Fort Davidson but failed. Next, Price sought to attack St. Louis but found it too heavily fortified.
He then broke west in a parallel course with the Missouri River. The Federals attempted to retard Price's advance through both minor and substantial skirmishing such as at Glasgow and Lexington. Price made his way to the extreme western portion of the state, taking part in a series of bitter battles at the Little Blue , Independence , and Byram's Ford. His Missouri campaign culminated in the battle of Westport in which over 30, troops fought, leading to the defeat of the Southern army.
The Missourians retreated through Kansas and Oklahoma into Arkansas, where they stayed for the remainder of the war. In , Missouri abolished slavery, doing so before the adoption of the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution , by an ordinance of immediate emancipation. Missouri adopted a new constitution, one that denied voting rights and had prohibitions against certain occupations for former Confederacy supporters. Besides organized military conflict, Missouri was beset by guerrilla warfare.
In such a bitterly divided state, neighbors frequently used the excuse of war to settle personal grudges and took up arms against neighbors. Roving insurgent bands such as Quantrill's Raiders and the men of Bloody Bill Anderson terrorized the countryside, striking both military installations and civilian settlements. Because of the widespread guerrilla conflict, and support by citizens in border counties, Federal leaders issued General Order No. They forced the residents out to reduce support for the guerrillas. Union cavalry could sweep through and track down Confederate guerrillas, who no longer had places to hide and people and infrastructure to support them.
On short notice, the army forced almost 20, people, mostly women, children, and the elderly, to leave their homes. Many never returned, and the affected counties were economically devastated for years after the end of the war. Families passed stories of their bitter experiences down through several generations. Western Missouri was the scene of brutal guerrilla warfare during the Civil War, and some marauding units became organized criminal gangs after the war. Vigilante groups appeared in remote areas where law enforcement was weak, to deal with the lawlessness left over from the guerrilla warfare phase.
For example, the Bald Knobbers were the term for several law-and-order vigilante groups in the Ozarks. In some cases, they too turned to illegal gang activity. The Western Sanitary Commission was a private agency based in St. Louis that was a rival of the larger U. Sanitary Commission. It operated during the war to help the U. Army deal with sick and wounded soldiers. It was led by abolitionists and especially after the war focused more on the needs of Freedmen. It was founded in August , under the leadership of Reverend William Greenleaf Eliot —87 , a Yankee, to care for the wounded soldiers after the opening battles.
It was supported by private fundraising in the city of St. Louis, as well as from donors in California and New England. Parrish explains it selected nurses, provided hospital supplies, set up several hospitals, and outfitted several hospital ships. It also provided clothing and places to stay for freedmen and refugees, and set up schools for black children. It continued to finance various philanthropic projects until In November , national and statewide elections gave the Radical Republicans strong majorities. In congressional elections, all but one of the victors was a Republican, and voters passed a proposal for a state convention to rewrite the state constitution. Any person who had given any sort of indirect support to the Confederacy lost his vote and the right to hold office or practice a profession.
Drake served as vice president of the state constitutional convention, where he stood out as the most active leader. Republican leader Carl Schurz commented about him, "in politics he was inexorable Louis; the group was, like the General Assembly, dominated by relatively young Radical Republicans. Among the first measures taken by the convention was the passage of an emancipation ordinance on January 11 that took effect immediately. It freed all of the slaves in Missouri, without compensation to the owners. The new Constitution was adopted and became known as the "Drake constitution. The new government replaced hundreds of locally elected officials and appointed their own men to take control of local affairs.
The Radicals disfranchised every man who had supported the Confederacy, even indirectly. They made an point checklist of actions that could cause disfranchisement and imposed an Ironclad Oath on all professional men, and government officeholders. It became a highly controversial political issue that split the Republican party. The German Republicans in particular were angry. Historians have emphasized the desire for power, revenge, and equal rights for blacks. The radicals had another goal as well: They used disfranchisement of ex-Confederates as a method of encouraging them to leave Missouri and to discourage southern whites with the same ideals from migrating into Missouri.
The idea was that Missouri would attract Northerners and European immigrants, thus generating economic growth and social progress. To further bolster their voting base, the Radicals sought the franchise for all black men in Missouri. A statewide referendum in , the Democrats were solidly negative, while Republicans split their vote, and black suffrage was defeated with 55, favor and 74, opposed. Missouri blacks finally got the vote in with the passage of the 15th Amendment.
Radical rule alienated group after group, diminishing the strength of the Republican Party. One critical element were the German Americans, who had voted 80 percent for Lincoln in , and who strongly supported the war effort. They were a bastion of the Republican Party in St. Louis and other immigrant strongholds. The German Americans were angered by a proposed state constitution that discriminating against Catholics and freethinkers. The requirement of a special loyalty oath for priests and ministers was troublesome. Despite their strong opposition the constitution was ratified in Racial tensions with the blacks began to emerge, especially in terms of competition for unskilled labor jobs.
Germania was nervous about black suffrage in , fearing that blacks would support puritanical laws Especially regarding the prohibition of beer gardens on Sundays. The tensions split off a large German element in , which supported the Liberal Republican party led by Benjamin Gratz Brown for governor in and Horace Greeley for president in Most started to vote for the Democrats. Furthermore, the nationwide Panic of was a severe economic depression that undermined the Republican promises of prosperity.
Violence grew much more serious, with many attacks on banks and trains. The farmers started to organize to protect their interests. He drew support from rural areas due to his endorsement of Free Silver and his desire to repeal the National Bank Act. The team was elected by a landslide and the Republican era was nearly over. In May , delegates drafted a conservative constitution to replace the Radical one of The majority of the delegates were conservative, well-educated, and generally had ties to the South.
Johnson , had been expelled from the U. Senate in after he joined the Confederacy. The new constitution was a reaction against the radicalism of the s and s, and it encouraged local control and a reduction in the powers of the state. It limited the ability of the state and local governments to tax, and reduced the restrictions on churches being able to own property. It required a two-thirds vote by citizens to authorize the issuance of local government bonds, and it restricted the ability of state legislators to craft legislation that would benefit their localities. The proposal was submitted for popular vote on August 2, , and the constitution passed overwhelmingly.
The Missouri economy grew steadily from the end of the war to the early 20th century. Railroads replaced the rivers, trains supplanted steamboats. From miles of track in , there were miles in and by Railroads built new towns as needed to provide repair and service facilities; the old river towns decline. Kansas City lacking a navigable river, became the rail center of the West, exploding from population to , by Cities of all sizes grew, as the proportion of Missourians living in communities over population jumped from 17 percent in , to 38 percent in Coal mining providing the locomotives, factories, Stores and homes with fuel, grew rapidly, as did the lumbering industry in the Ozarks which provided the timber for cross ties and smaller bridges.
Louis remained the number one railroad center, unloading 21, carloads of merchandise in , , in , and , in The total tonnage of freight carried on all Missouri railroads doubled and redoubled again from 20 million tons in to million in The most important economic change of late 19th century Missouri was the arrival and growth of railroads. The opening of Missouri to the national market by way of the railroad provided the impetus for specialization in nearly every commercial sector.
It shifted the main traffic away from the river system to the East-West Valley system. Although the first railroads were built in Missouri during the s, significant expansion began during the s: between and , Missouri trackage nearly doubled from 2, to 3, miles. The railroad encouraged growth of surface roads; the arrival of the St. Louis—San Francisco Railway in Springfield in led to the establishment of several roads nearby that connected a region more than miles across. Another outcome of railroad expansion was the dramatic increase in the population and wealth of urban Missouri.
The town of Sedalia was itself platted because of the proximity to the Pacific Railroad, and the opening of the Missouri—Kansas—Texas Railroad in the town only accelerated growth. Of note during this period of activity was the U. Army's investment in river management issues such as navigation, flood mitigation and commerce. The formal establishment of a U. Army Corps of Engineers District at Saint Louis on 19 February signaled a significant effort by the federal government to provide regional leadership in the post Civil War era. Among the rural towns of Missouri, Joplin experienced the greatest growth during the late 19th century, largely as a result of the discovery of iron ore near town in the early s.
A group of Joplin investors created a railroad line in to facilitate movement of iron and coal to the area; in , the Joplin and Girard Railroad was sold to the St. Louis—San Francisco Railway. Nonexistent in , Joplin's population grew to 7, in and 10, in Another example of the rapid growth brought by the railroad was Cape Girardeau. As a result of the Panic of , an early railroad venture there failed before construction began; however, railroad promoter and lawyer Louis Houck was employed to revamp the company, and in late , Houck managed the completion of a Houck continued to successfully expand the road, ultimately building more than miles of track in southeast Missouri.
Louis and Kansas City grew dramatically during the decades after the Civil War. Louis in particular benefited from greater railroad connections after the construction of the Eads Bridge in across the Mississippi River. Among St. Louis's greatest success stories was that of the Anheuser-Busch brewery, founded in the s by Eberhard Anheuser , who partnered with his son-in-law Adolphus Busch. Kansas City also expanded rapidly during the period; its population increased from 3, in to more than 32, in , largely due to the promotional efforts of Joseph G. Canned beef production in Kansas City totaled nearly , tins in , expanding to more than 4 million tins in By , the city processed more than 9 million bushels of wheat a year, and in , eleven railroad lines operated in the city.
During the Civil War, the Federal government closed the Mississippi to ordinary commerce so that military traffic could move faster. When the war was over, the prosperity of the South was ruined. Hundreds of steamboats had been destroyed, and levees had been damaged by warfare and flooding. Much of the commerce of the West that before the war headed to New Orleans, via the Mississippi, now went to the East Coast via the Great Lakes and by the rapidly multiplying new lines of railways connecting through Chicago.
Some revival of commerce on the Mississippi took place following the war, but this was checked by a sandbar at the mouth of the Southwest Pass in its delta on the Gulf of Mexico. Ead's jetties created a new shipping passage at the mouth of the South Pass in , but the facilities for the transfer of freight in New Orleans were far inferior to those employed by the railways, and the steamboat companies did not prosper. Up to the s, the six southeastern counties of Missouri's Bootheel , swampy and subject to flooding, remained heavily forested, underdeveloped, and underpopulated.
Beginning in the s, railroads opened up the Bootheel to logging. In , the Little River Drainage District constructed an elaborate system of ditches, canals, and levees to drain swampland. As a result, population more than tripled from to , and cotton cultivation flourished. By it was the chief crop, attracting newcomers to the farms from Arkansas and Tennessee. The railroad brought significant changes to Missouri agriculture during the late 19th century, providing both external markets for local crops and competition from producers in other parts of the United States. Norman J. Colman , an agriculturalist who served on the state Board of Agriculture from to , encouraged Missouri farmers to adopt scientific farming techniques to compete in the national market.
In , Colman convinced the General Assembly to establish a College of Agriculture at the University of Missouri in Columbia, a process aided by state legislator and university curator James S. The well-known agricultural researcher Jeremiah W. Sanborn served as the college's second dean starting in , and in , the college sponsored dozens of agricultural institutes across Missouri to educate farmers on modern practices. Colman continued to encourage agriculture in Missouri after his appointment in as U. Commissioner of Agriculture in , Colman became the first Secretary of Agriculture when the department became a cabinet-level agency.
As a result of the efforts of Colman, Sanborn, and others at the University of Missouri, the number of Missouri farms experienced significant growth during the s. At the beginning of the decade, the state had slightly less than , farms and 9. With the arrival of the railroad, some counties and towns experienced rapid growth: in , rural Wayne County had no railroad connection, had 27, acres of farmland, and produced , bushels of corn.
In the early s, however the town of Piedmont in Wayne County was made a junction of the Iron Mountain Railroad, and production expanded dramatically; by , the county had 47, acres of farmland and produced , bushels of corn. Piedmont itself went from an unplatted village in to a town of residents by , with professional and retail workers who made the town attractive to farmers. Despite the growth brought by the railroads and new techniques, Missouri continued to undergo urbanization during the late 19th century. Labor-saving devices such as the sulky plow, corn planter, mower, and reaper made most farm laborers more productive, with a surplus moving to town.
In addition, the competition brought by the railroad generally caused a decline in farm prices after ; in , a bushel of Missouri corn sold for 67 cents, but its price dropped to 24 cents in and remained in the 20 to 40 cent range for most of the s and s. In response to declining prices and opportunities for new scientific methods farmers began forming chapters of The Grange. Oliver Hudson, a U. Bureau of Agriculture employee, formed the first Missouri Grange chapter in , and by , Missouri led the nation with over 2, chapters.
In addition to organizing social events for farmers and their wives, the Grange organized them economically by creating trade fairs and collective sales of farm produce, and the group opened no fewer than eight cooperative stores where goods could be bought at reasonable prices by Grange members. Grange stores operated in several market towns. In spite of the efforts of the Grange, however, most Missouri farmers remained economically disadvantaged during the s and s.
As it had during the s, the number of farms and acreage under cultivation again increased in the s and s. However, roughly half of the state's claimed land remained uncultivated in , and in , the state still had more than , acres of unclaimed federal land available under the Homestead Act. After significant declines during the s, land prices recovered slightly during the s, although the market remained unstable and largely dependent on the particulars of the farm.
Another factor in the continued economic issues of the farmer was the increasing availability of credit from eastern bankers; high interest rates frequently led to repossession of farmland and sheriff's sales during the s. The late 19th century was a time of continuity in terms of crops produced in Missouri, with the majority of acreage given to the production of corn and wheat. In , farmers devoted more than 7. Most corn in Missouri also was consumed in the state by livestock, and hay and pasture land for livestock made up The largest group of livestock consisted of swine, totalling 4.
Sheep, goats, and turkeys were insignificant, although chicken raising was an important supplementary income for farmers during the s; as with swine, the state ranked third among poultry raising states. Missouri mules remained nationally famous. During the Boer War from to , the state shipped more than , mules to Britain, and the U. Before the original Ozark settlers in the southwest part of the state were part-time farmers, herders and hunters. During — the region became one of general full-time small farm operations, with diverse crops and livestock. Hunting and fishing became leisure activities, rather than a necessity for subsistence. After commercial agriculture increased and livestock production surpassed cultivation.
The general farm of yore vanished. Only dairy farming survived the pressure of livestock production. By the s, however, agriculture in the Ozarks had come full circle. Many modern farmers survived only by becoming part-time farmers. Much of the population commutes to paid employment for most of their income, in much the same way as the pioneers had been forced to diversify their efforts. In the early nineteenth century, Missouri had two divergent family styles—the French and the American. The French placed the mother at the head of the house; the Americans treated the mother as little more than a fellow-worker who often took second place to the men in the family.
Louis  and their final destinations. The largest groups were Catholic, Lutheran, and German. Once arrived, the women—mostly in their twenties—coped with the problems of daily life in an unfamiliar and occasionally hostile environment, with a limited network of kinfolk available to help. The historical records show more variety, with many being cantankerous, complaining, and unwilling to subordinate themselves. These nonconformists exerted a greater influence on the community scene than they could by strict conformity to generally accepted behavior. Throughout the century, most rural families lived traditional lifestyles, based on male dominance. Efforts to modernize rural life, and upgrade the status of women, were reflected in numerous movements, including Public schools, women's church activities, temperance reform, and the campaign for woman suffrage.
Reformers sought to modernize the rural home by transforming its women from producers to consumers. After the Civil War some women became wage earners in industrializing cities. It was common for widows to operate boardinghouses or small shops; younger women worked in tobacco, shoe, and clothing factories. Some women helped their husbands publish local newspapers, which flourished in every county seat and small city. In , women began to attend the Missouri Press Association's meetings; by the women formed their own press association, and at the end of the century, women were editing or publishing 25 newspapers in Missouri.
They were especially active in developing features to entertain their women readers, and to help women with their housework and child-rearing. Before the Civil War, Missouri followed the southern pattern that downplayed public schooling, as well-to-do families patronized local private academies. Ambitious but poor parents pooled their resources to hire part-time teachers for their children. During Reconstruction, the Radicals in power strongly favored modernization through the rapid growth in public schools.
Their Constitution, and numerous state laws, called for a large network of public schools, including ones for black children. The plan was to require four months terms of schooling every year for children. Under the aggressive leadership of state superintendent of schools Thomas A. Parker, the number of public schools jumped from 48, in to 75, in , as enrollment grew from , to , The totals included black students. About 59 percent of the eligible white children attended school annually in , along with 21 percent of the eligible black children.
New normal schools, to train teachers, were opened at Kirksville  and Warrensburg in The all-black Lincoln Institute in Jefferson City opened an education department to train black teachers. A new state university was founded in Columbia, with land-grant federal aid. However it had to share some of that aid with the new school of mines at Rolla. The public school system across the state was heavily oriented toward providing the three Rs of elementary education.
High schools were rare outside the major cities. Families that could afford to have children attend school rather than hold a paying job patronized 45 academies in , most of which were attached to the 37 small private colleges. Most were run by religious denominations. Louis, under the leadership of William Torrey Harris as superintendent of schools —, developed one of the nation's outstanding public school system, complete with the first public kindergartens.
Once the conservatives returned to power in , however, public schooling became again a low priority matter in rural Missouri. In highly traditional, remote parts of the Ozark Mountains, there was little demand for modern medicine. Childbirth, aches, pains and broken bones were handled by local practitioners of folk medicine, most of whom were women. Their herbs, salves and other remedies often healed sick people, but their methods relied especially on recognizing and ministering to their patients' psychological, spiritual, and physical needs. Before the war, the police and municipal judges used their powers to regulate rather than eliminate the sex trades.
In antebellum St. Louis, prostitutes working in orderly, discreet brothels were seldom arrested or harassed—unless they were unusually boisterous, engaged in sexual activities outside of their established district, or violated other rules of appropriate conduct. Louis passed a vagrancy ordinance, criminalizing any woman who walked on the streets after sunset. In , the city passed a law forbidding women from working in bars and saloons, even if the women were owners.
These laws were meant to keep prostitution at a minimum but adversely affected women who were legitimately employed. Middle-class women demanded entry into higher education, and the state colleges reluctantly admitted them. Culver-Stockton College opened in the s as a coeducational school, the first west of the Mississippi. Women were first admitted to the normal school of Missouri State University at Columbia in , but they had second-class status.
They were shunted into a few narrow academic programs, restricted in their use of the library, separated from the men, and forced to wear uniforms. They were not allowed to live on campus. President Samuel Spahr Laws was the most restrictive administrator, enforcing numerous rules and the wearing of drab uniforms. Still, the number of women students at the school grew despite the difficulties. Well into the 20th century, the women who attended the school were given an arts and music program that was little better than a high school education.
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