✍️✍️✍️ Purpose Of Teenage Rebellion
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The Teenage Brain Explained
Juvenile Delinquency, is the unlawful activities by minors in their teen or pre-teen years. It is influenced by four main risk factors namely; personality, background, state of mind and drugs. Gender is another risk factor in regards to influencing delinquent behavior. The predictors of different types of delinquency vary across females and males for various reasons, but a common underlying reason for this is socialization.
Socialization plays a key role in the gender gap in delinquency because male and female juveniles are often socialized differently. Girls' and boys' experiences are heavily mediated by gender, which alters their interactions in society. Males and females are differently controlled and bonded, suggesting that they will not make the same choices and may follow different paths of delinquency. Social bonds are important for both males and females, but different aspects of the bond are relevant for each gender.
Males tend to be more connected with their peer relationships which in effect has a stronger influence on their behavior. Delinquent peers are positively and significantly related to delinquency in males but delinquent peers are negatively and insignificantly related to delinquency for females. Female juveniles tend to be more strongly connected with their families, the disconnect or the lack of socialization between their family members can significantly predict their likelihood of committing crimes as juveniles and even as adults.
When the family is disrupted, females are more likely to engage in delinquent behavior than males. Elements of the social bond, social disorganization, routine activities, opportunity, and attitudes towards violence are also related to delinquent behavior among both males and females. Individual psychological or behavioral risk factors that may make offending more likely include low intelligence , impulsiveness or the inability to delay gratification , aggression , lack of empathy , and restlessness. Children with low intelligence are more likely to do badly in school. This may increase the chances of offending because low educational attainment, a low attachment to school, and low educational aspirations are all risk factors for offending in themselves.
Impulsiveness is seen by some as the key aspect of a child's personality that predicts offending. Juvenile delinquents are often diagnosed with different disorders. Around six to sixteen percent of male teens and two to nine percent of female teens have a conduct disorder. These can vary from oppositional-defiant disorder , which is not necessarily aggressive, to antisocial personality disorder , often diagnosed among psychopaths. Once the juvenile continues to exhibit the same behavioral patterns and turns eighteen he is then at risk of being diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder and much more prone to become a serious criminal offender. These two personality disorders are analogous in their erratic and aggressive behavior.
This is why habitual juvenile offenders diagnosed with conduct disorder are likely to exhibit signs of antisocial personality disorder early in life and then as they mature. Some times these juveniles reach maturation and they develop into career criminals, or life-course-persistent offenders. Quantitative research was completed on 9, juvenile male offenders between the ages of 10 and 18 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in the s. Therefore, while there is a high rate of juvenile delinquency, it is the small percentage of life-course persistent, career criminals that are responsible for most of the violent crimes. There are a multitude of different theories on the causes of crime , most, if not all, of which are applicable to the causes of juvenile delinquency.
Classical criminology stresses that the causes of crime lie within individual offenders, rather than in their external environment. For classicists, offenders are motivated by rational self-interest , and the importance of free will and personal responsibility is emphasized. Delinquency is one of the major factors motivated by rational choice. Current positivist approaches generally focus on the culture. A type of criminological theory attributing variation in crime and delinquency over time and among territories to the absence or breakdown of communal institutions such as family, school, church, and social groups and communal relationships that traditionally encouraged cooperative relationships among people.
Strain theory is associated mainly with the work of Robert K. Merton , who felt that there are institutionalized paths to success in society. Strain theory holds that crime is caused by the difficulty for those in poverty have to achieve socially-valued goals by legitimate means. A difficulty with strain theory is that it does not explore why children of low-income families have poor educational attainment in the first place. More importantly, much youth crime does not have an economic motivation.
Strain theory fails to explain violent crime , the type of youth crime that causes most anxiety to the public. Differential association is another theory that deals with young people in a group context and looks at how peer pressure and the existence of gangs could lead them into crime. It suggests young people are motivated to commit crimes by delinquent peers and learn criminal skills from them. The diminished influence of peers after men marry has also been cited as a factor in desisting from offending. There is strong evidence that young people with criminal friends are more likely to commit crimes themselves.
However, offenders may prefer to associate with one another, rather than delinquent peers causing someone to start offending. Furthermore, there is the question of how the delinquent peer group initially became delinquent. Labeling theory is a concept in criminology that aims to explain deviant behavior from the social context, rather the individual themselves. It is part of interactionism criminology, which states that once young people have been labeled as criminal, they are more likely to offend. Social control theory proposes that exploiting the process of socialization and social learning builds self-control and can reduce the inclination to indulge in behavior that is recognized as antisocial. These four types of control can help prevent juvenile delinquency:.
Direct by which punishment is threatened or applied for wrongful behavior, and compliance is rewarded by parents, family, and authority figures. Internal by which a youth refrains from delinquency through the conscience or superego. Indirect by identification with those who influence behavior, such as because the delinquent act might cause pain and disappointment to parents and others close relationships. Control through needs satisfaction: if all an individual's needs are met, there is no point in criminal activity.
Delinquency prevention is the broad term for all efforts aimed at preventing youth from becoming involved in criminal, or other antisocial, activity. Prevention services may include activities such as substance abuse education and treatment, family counseling, youth mentoring, parenting education, educational support, and youth sheltering. Increasing availability and use of family planning services, including education and contraceptives helps to reduce unintended pregnancy and unwanted births, which are risk factors for delinquency. It has been noted that often interventions such as peer groups may leave at-risk children worse off then if there had never been an intervention. In a ruling abolished the death penalty for juveniles in Saudi Arabia. Despite this Mustafa Hashem al-Darwish was executed in June He was alleged to have of taken part in anti-government demonstrations at the age of One criminal justice approach to juvenile delinquency is through the juvenile court systems.
These courts are specifically for minors to be tried in. Sometimes, juvenile offenders are sent to adult prisons. Additionally, the United States was the only recorded country to sentence children as young as 13 to life sentences without parole also known as death in prison sentences. As of , the Supreme Court has declared death in prison sentences unconstitutional for the vast majority of cases involving children.
According to a report released by the Prison Policy Initiative, over 48, children are held in juvenile detention centers or prisons in America. Children in juvenile detention have a compromised or nonexistent schooling which to a higher number of drop outs and failure to complete secondary education. Education promotes economic growth, national productivity and innovation, and values of democracy and social cohesion. A well-known intervention treatment is the Scared Straight Treatment. In response to the data correlated with the school to prison pipeline, some institutions have implemented restorative justice policies. It is also important to note certain works of legislation that have already been published in the United States in response to general prisoner re-entry, extending to juveniles, such as the Second Chance Act and most recently, the Second Chance Reauthorization Act Juvenile reform deals with the vocational programs and educational approach to reducing recidivism rates of juvenile offenders.
Most countries in the world legislate processes for juvenile reform and re-entry, some more elaborate and formal than others. In theory, juvenile re-entry is sensitive to the fact that juveniles are young and assumes they are capable of change; it approaches a juvenile offender's situation and history holistically, evaluating the earlier factors that could lead a juvenile to commit crimes. In practice, this is complicated since juvenile delinquents return home to varying and unpredictable circumstances, including poverty, substance abuse, domestic violence, etc.. In the United States, juvenile reform is split into four main phases: . An understanding of the factors involved in each of these steps is crucial to creating an effective juvenile reform program.
One non-profit identifies the following approaches to juvenile reform: . While juvenile reform has proved to be an effective and humanizing approach response to juvenile delinquency, it is a very complex area that still has many ongoing debates. For example, many countries around the world are debating the appropriate age of a juvenile, as well as trying to understand whether there are some crimes that are so heinous, they should be exempt from any understanding. Based on these discussions, legislation needs to be consistently updated and considered as social, cultural, and political landscapes change. Juveniles who commit sexual crimes refer to individuals adjudicated in a criminal court for a sexual crime.
Examining prevalence data and the characteristics of juvenile sex offenders is a fundamental component to obtain a precise understanding of this heterogeneous group. With mandatory reporting laws in place, it became a necessity for providers to report any incidents of disclosed sexual abuse. In one case in a foster home a year-old boy raped a 9-year-old boy by having forced anal sex with him, in a court hearing the 9-year-old boy said he has done this multiple times, that the year-old boy was charged for sexual assault. Sexual crimes committed by juveniles are not just an issue in the United States. Studies from the Netherlands show that out of sex offenders recorded by police in , of those were juveniles, approximately 21 percent of sexual offenders.
The study also points out the male to female ratio of sexual predators. When asked to do something, he responds in a sarcastic manner, often cussing at the teacher. John has been acting this way ever since a girl he cared for deeply broke up with him to date another guy. On the inside, he feels rejected and insecure about himself. On the outside, he acts tough and pretends he doesn't care what happens to him in an effort to shield himself from being hurt more. John isn't aware that his distress about this breakup is the reason for his acting out behavior at school.
While acting out can often be connected to the issues a teen is struggling with, nothing in their lives changes until a teen begins to deal with the reasons behind the behavior. When parents see a teen acting out, this is a strong warning sign the teen is hurting and needs help to effectively express their pain and deal with what is truly troubling them. If your teen or their friends have been acting out, try to sit them down in a neutral setting to get to the root of what may be upsetting them. You may learn that they have some healing to do. Why not be that voice of reason they need to get past negative thoughts about themselves or past hurts?
Ever wonder what your personality type means? Sign up to find out more in our Healthy Mind newsletter. The relationship between parent-child conflict and adolescent antisocial behavior: Confirming shared environmental mediation. J Abnorm Child Psychol. Still simply one of the most exuberant and strangely innocent celebrations of how fucking great it can be to be young and cool. Stumbling through the adult world, they decide to answer a personal ad and play a prank on Seymour Steve Buscemi , the middle-aged man who placed it. Feeling guilty after, Enid follows Seymour to his garage sale and buys one of his Blues records, sparking an unconventional friendship of sorts.
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