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A Level Psychology: Bowlby's Monotropic Theory of Attachment
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These included the rescue of Jewish children by the Kindertransport arrangements, the evacuation of children from London to keep them safe from air raids, and the use of group nurseries to allow mothers of young children to contribute to the war effort. By the late s, he had accumulated a body of observational and theoretical work to indicate the fundamental importance for human development of attachment from birth. Bowlby was interested in finding out the patterns of family interaction involved in both healthy and pathological development.
He focused on how attachment difficulties were transmitted from one generation to the next. In his development of attachment theory, he proposed the idea that attachment behaviour was an evolutionary survival strategy for protecting the infant from predators. Mary Ainsworth joined Bowlby's research unit at Tavistock,  further extended and tested his ideas. She played the primary role in suggesting that several attachment styles existed. Seven important experiences for Bowlby's future work and the development of attachment theory were:. There were certain groups who took to it with great enthusiasm, other groups were directly lukewarm and other hostile, each profession reacted differently.
The social workers took to it with enthusiasm; the psychoanalysts treated it with caution, curiously and for me infuriatingly pediatricians were initially hostile but subsequently many of them became very supporting; adult psychiatrists totally uninterested, totally ignorant, totally uninterested. In , Bowlby's earlier work on delinquent and affectionless children and the effects of hospitalised and institutionalised care led to his being commissioned to write the World Health Organization 's report on the mental health of homeless children in post-war Europe.
Bowlby drew together such limited empirical evidence as existed at the time from across Europe and the US. His main conclusions, that "the infant and young child should experience a warm, intimate, and continuous relationship with his mother or permanent mother substitute in which both find satisfaction and enjoyment" and that not to do so may have significant and irreversible mental health consequences, were both controversial and influential. The WHO publication was highly influential in causing widespread changes in the practices and prevalence of institutional care for infants and children, and in changing practices relating to the visiting of infants and small children in hospitals by parents.
He broke with psychoanalytic theories which saw infants' internal life as being determined by fantasy rather than real life events. Some critics profoundly disagreed with the necessity for maternal or equivalent love to function normally,  or that the formation of an ongoing relationship with a child was an important part of parenting. There was criticism of the confusion of the effects of privation no primary attachment figure and deprivation loss of the primary attachment figure and in particular, a failure to distinguish between the effects of the lack of a primary attachment figure and the other forms of deprivation and understimulation that may affect children in institutions. The monograph was also used for political purposes to claim any separation from the mother was deleterious to discourage women from working and leaving their children in daycare by governments concerned about maximising employment for returned and returning servicemen.
According to Rutter , the importance of Bowlby's initial writings on "maternal deprivation" lay in his emphasis that children's experiences of interpersonal relationships were crucial to their psychological development. In his work A Secure Base , Bowlby explained that the data was not, at the time of the publication of Maternal Care and Mental Health , "accommodated by any theory then current and in the brief time of my employment by the World Health Organization there was no possibility of developing a new one".
He then went on to describe the subsequent development of attachment theory. Bowlby was encouraged by an evolutionary biologist, Julian Huxley , to look further into ethology to help further his research in psychoanalysis as he introduced Bowlby to the impactful work by Tinbergen on "The Study of Instinct". From reading widely in ethology, Bowlby was able to learn that ethologists supported the theoretical ideas through concrete empirical data.
Using the viewpoints of this emerging science and reading extensively in the ethology literature, Bowlby developed new explanatory hypotheses for what is now known as human attachment behaviour. In particular, on the basis of ethological evidence he was able to reject the dominant Cupboard Love theory of attachment prevailing in psychoanalysis and learning theory of the s and s. He also introduced the concepts of environmentally stable or labile human behaviour allowing for the revolutionary combination of the idea of a species-specific genetic bias to become attached and the concept of individual differences in attachment security as environmentally labile strategies for adaptation to a specific childrearing niche.
Alternatively, Bowlby's thinking about the nature and function of the caregiver-child relationship influenced ethological research, and inspired students of animal behaviour such as Tinbergen, Hinde, and Harry Harlow. One of Harlow's students, Stephen Suomi, wrote about the contributions Bowlby's made to ethology,  including that Harlow brought attachment research into animal research specifically with rhesus monkeys and various other species of monkeys and apes. Furthermore, Suomi wrote that Bowlby brought to the field of ethology the acknowledgement of the consequences over time from different attachment styles that are prevalent in rhesus monkeys specifically in the work of Harlow.
According to Suomi, "Although Bowlby was a psychoanalyst by formal training, he was a true ethologist at heart". Bowlby spurred Hinde to start his ground breaking work on attachment and separation in primates monkeys and humans , and in general emphasized the importance of evolutionary thinking about human development that foreshadowed the new interdisciplinary approach of evolutionary psychology. Obviously, the encounter of ethology and attachment theory led to a genuine cross-fertilization. Before the publication of the trilogy in , and , the main tenets of attachment theory, building on concepts from ethology and developmental psychology, were presented to the British Psychoanalytical Society in London in three now classic papers: "The Nature of the Child's Tie to His Mother" , "Separation Anxiety" , and "Grief and Mourning in Infancy and Early Childhood" Bowlby rejected psychoanalytic explanations for attachment, and in return, psychoanalysts rejected his theory.
At about the same time, Bowlby's former colleague Mary Ainsworth was completing extensive observational studies on the nature of infant attachments in Uganda with Bowlby's ethological theories in mind. Her results in this and other studies contributed greatly to the subsequent evidence base of attachment theory as presented in in Attachment , the first volume of the Attachment and Loss trilogy. Attachment was revised in to incorporate recent research. According to attachment theory, attachment in infants is primarily a process of proximity seeking to an identified attachment figure in situations of perceived distress or alarm for the purpose of survival.
Infants become attached to adults who are sensitive and responsive in social interactions with the infant, and who remain as consistent caregivers for some months during the period from about 6 months to two years of age. Parental responses lead to the development of patterns of attachment which in turn lead to " internal working models " which will guide the individual's feelings, thoughts, and expectations in later relationships. The self-model and other-model are built off of early experiences with their primary caregiver and shape an individual's expectation on future interactions with others and interactions within interpersonal relationships. The self-model will determine how the individual sees themselves, which will impact their self-confidence, self-esteem, and dependency.
The other-model will determine how an individual sees others, which will impact their avoidance or approach orientation, loneliness, isolation, and social interactions. In Bowlby's approach, the human infant is considered to have a need for a secure relationship with adult caregivers, without which normal social and emotional development will not occur. As the toddler grows, it uses its attachment figure or figures as a "secure base" from which to explore. Mary Ainsworth used this feature in addition to "stranger wariness" and reunion behaviours, other features of attachment behaviour, to develop a research tool called the " strange situation " for developing and classifying different attachment styles. The attachment process is not gender specific as infants will form attachments to any consistent caregiver who is sensitive and responsive in social interactions with the infant.
The quality of the social engagement appears to be more influential than amount of time spent. Bowlby's last work, published posthumously, is a biography of Charles Darwin , which discusses Darwin's "mysterious illness" and whether it was psychosomatic. In order to obtain a clear understanding of the current relationships existing between members of any family it is usually illuminating to examine how the pattern of family relationships has evolved.
That leads to a study of earlier generations, the calamities and other events that may have affected their lives and the patterns of family interaction that results. In the case of the family in which Darwin grew up, I believe such study to be amply rewarding. For that reason alone it would be necessary to start with his grandfathers' generation. Although not without its critics, attachment theory has been described as the dominant approach to understanding early social development and it has given rise to a great surge of empirical research into the formation of children's close relationships. A mountain in Kyrgyzstan has been named after Bowlby. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
British psychiatrist and psychoanalyst — London , England. Isle of Skye , Scotland. Main article: Maternal deprivation. Main articles: Attachment theory and Attachment in children. Main article: Attachment theory. Attachment disorder Attachment in children Attachment theory Attachment-based therapy children Attachment therapy Dynamic-Maturational Model of Attachment and Adaptation Ian Dishart Suttie Reactive attachment disorder Trauma model of mental disorders.
Bowlby J . Maternal Care and Mental Health. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. The master work series. The most important fact in forming attachments is not who feeds and changes the child but who plays and communicates with him or her. Therefore, sensitive responsiveness to the baby's signals, appeared to be the key to attachment. The Schaffer and Emerson study has low population validity. The infants in the study all came from Glasgow and were mostly from working class families. In addition, the small sample size of 60 families reduces the strength of the conclusion we can draw from the study.
However, accuracy of data collection by parents who were keeping daily diaries whilst clearly being very busy could be questioned. A diary like this is also very unreliable with demand characteristics and social desirability being major issues. Mothers are not lkely to report negative experiences in their daily write up. The study lacks historical validity. It was conducted in the s when gender roles were different — Now, more men stay at home to look after their children and more women go out to work so the sample is biased.
Psychologists have proposed two main theories that are believed to be important in forming attachments. Once the neutral stimuli which in this context is the mother present while the child is eating is consistently associated with an unconditioned stimulus and will eventually produce the same response. The mother then becomes a learned conditioned stimulus and produces a conditioned response. This then results in the mother once seen by the infant gives the child a sense of pleasure which is a conditioned response.
Operant conditioning was first investigated by Skinner and then further investigated by Dollard and Miller in regard of attachment and drive reduction theory which describes something that motivates behavior. This was then investigated as when an infant is hungry there is a drive to reduce the discomfort which happens as a result. Once the child is fed this produces a feeling of pleasure which is positive reinforcement. Behavior which is rewarded by food is repeated and food becomes the primary reinforcer as it is associated with a reward and reinforces the behavior. The person supplying the food which can be the mother or primary caregiver becomes a secondary reinforcer as they become the source of the reward.
Conclusively, the attachment occurs because the child associates the person who supplies the food with rewards and seeks them. The evolutionary theory of attachment e. The determinant of attachment is not food, but care and responsiveness. Bowlby suggested that a child would initially form only one primary attachment monotropy and that the attachment figure acted as a secure base for exploring the world. The attachment relationship acts as a prototype for all future social relationships so disrupting it can have severe consequences. This theory also suggests that there is a critical period for developing an attachment about 0 -5 years. If an attachment has not developed during this period, then the child will suffer from irreversible developmental consequences, such as reduced intelligence and increased aggression.
McLeod, S. Attachment theory. Simply Psychology. Ainsworth, M. Attachment, exploration, and separation: Illustrated by the behavior of one-year-olds in a strange situation. Child Development, 41 , The development of infant-mother attachment. Ricciuti Eds.Sanderson plainly had bowlby 44 thieves study ball with this nonstop, highflying bowlby 44 thieves study, and readers will too. In the absence of critical bowlby 44 thieves study derived from observing man such hypotheses are no more than intelligent guesses. Oxford: Bowlby 44 thieves study University Press. At about bowlby 44 thieves study same time, Bowlby's former colleague Mary Ainsworth was completing extensive bowlby 44 thieves study Contributions Of Andrew Carnegie on the nature of bowlby 44 thieves study attachments in Uganda with Bowlby's ethological bowlby 44 thieves study in mind. Baltimore: Bowlby 44 thieves study Hopkins University Press.