⌚ Compare And Contrast Elizabeth Proctor And Abigail Williams
Maybe this obsession leads to his immorality and poor leadership. The National Nuclear Security Administration. The team competes in 80,seat Compare And Contrast Elizabeth Proctor And Abigail Williams Dame Stadium. To live in a patriarchal society, to be constantly monitored by guards and potential eyes. Essay On Self Driving Cars Crucible presents a view of women that essentially reduces them to caricatures of human Compare And Contrast Elizabeth Proctor And Abigail Williams that are defined by their roles as mothers, Compare And Contrast Elizabeth Proctor And Abigail Williams, and servants to men. The Crucible is a four-act play, which presents a dramatised and partially fictionalised depiction Compare And Contrast Elizabeth Proctor And Abigail Williams the Salem witch trials.
Character Analysis of Abigail Williams in The Crucible - Complete Video
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We will contact you soon Ok, thanks. Subscribe for regular offers. Please enter your name. Please enter a valid email. The main campus covers 1, acres ha in a suburban setting; it contains a number of recognizable landmarks, such as the Golden Dome , the Word of Life mural commonly known as Touchdown Jesus , Notre Dame Stadium , and the Basilica. Notre Dame has been recognized as one of the top universities in the United States.
The university offers over 50 year-long study programs abroad and over 15 summer programs. The majority of the university's 8, undergraduates live on campus in one of 33 residence halls , each with its own traditions, legacies, events, and intramural sports teams. The university's approximately , alumni constitute one of the strongest college alumni networks in the U. Notre Dame is known for its football team , which contributed to its rise to prominence on the national stage in the early 20th century; the team, an Independent with no conference affiliation, has accumulated 11 consensus national championships, seven Heisman Trophy winners, 62 members of the College Football Hall of Fame , and 13 of the Pro Football Hall of Fame.
Notre Dame's profile grew in the early 20th century, aided by the success of its football team under coach Knute Rockne. Major improvements to the university occurred during the administration of Theodore Hesburgh between and , as his administration greatly increased the university's resources, academic programs, and reputation. The university first enrolled women undergraduates in Since then, the university has seen steady growth, and under the leadership of the next two presidents, Edward Malloy and John I.
Jenkins , many infrastructure and research expansions have been completed. Sorin arrived on the site with eight Holy Cross brothers from France and Ireland on November 26, , and began the school using Badin's old log chapel. After enrolling two students, they soon erected more buildings, including the Old College , the first church, and the first main building. The newborn college awarded its first degrees in Under William Corby 's first administration, enrollment at Notre Dame increased to more than students.
In , he opened the law school , which offered a two-year course of study, and in he began construction of Sacred Heart Church, today the Basilica of the Sacred Heart. Two years later, Auguste Lemonnier started a library in the Main Building which reached 10, volumes by The Main Building and the library collection were destroyed by a fire in April ; the school closed immediately and students were sent home. Construction was started on May 17, and by the incredible zeal of administrators and workers, the third and current Main Building was completed before the fall semester of The library collection was also rebuilt and housed in the new Main Building.
The presidency of Thomas E. Walsh was focused on improving Notre Dame's scholastic reputation and standards. At the time, many students came to Notre Dame for its business courses only, and did not graduate. Hoynes dean from to and when its new building was opened shortly after his death it was renamed in Hoynes' honor. John Zahm was the Holy Cross Provincial for the United States from to , with overall supervision of the university.
He sought to modernize and expand Notre Dame by erecting buildings and adding to the campus art gallery and library, amassing what became a famous Dante collection, and pushing Notre Dame towards becoming a research university dedicated to scholarship. The congregation did not renew Zahm's term because of fears he had expanded Notre Dame too quickly and had run the order into serious debt. By , student enrollment increased to more than , with most students still following the Commercial Course. The movement towards a research university was subsequently championed by John W. Cavanaugh , who modernized educational standards.
An intellectual figure known for his literary gifts and his eloquent speeches, he dedicated himself to the school's academic reputation and to increasing number of students awarded bachelor's and master's degrees. As part of his efforts, he attracted a number of eminent scholars, established a chair in journalism, and introduced courses in chemical engineering. During his time as president, Notre Dame also rapidly became a significant force on the football field. However, female undergraduates did not become common until Burns became president in and, following in the footsteps of Cavanaugh, in three years he produced an academic revolution that brought the school up to national standards by adopting the elective system and moving away from the traditional scholastic and classical emphasis.
When he assumed the presidency, more than 1, students lived off campus while only students paid for room and board. With fund-raising money, Walsh concentrated on the construction of a dormitory system. He built Freshman Hall in and Sophomore Hall in , and began construction of Morrissey , Howard and Lyons between and On the academic side, credit hours were reduced to encourage in-depth study and Latin and Greek were no longer required for a degree. In three years of college were made a prerequisite for the study of law. One of the main driving forces in the growth of the university was its football team, the Notre Dame Fighting Irish.
Under Rockne, the Irish would post a record of wins, 12 losses, and five ties. Knute Rockne has the highest winning percentage. Rockne's offenses employed the Notre Dame Box and his defenses ran a 7—2—2 scheme. Catholics rallied around the team and listened to the games on the radio, especially when it defeated teams from schools that symbolized the Protestant establishment in America—Harvard, Yale, Princeton, and Army. The Klan decided to have a week-long Klavern in South Bend. Clashes with the student body started on May 17, when students blocked the Klansmen from descending from their trains in the South Bend station and ripped the KKK clothes and regalia. Two days later thousands of students massed downtown protesting the Klavern, and only the arrival of college president Walsh prevented any further clashes.
The next day, Rockne spoke at a campus rally and implored the students to obey Walsh and refrain from further violence. A few days later the Klavern broke up, but the hostility shown by the students contributed to the downfall of the KKK in Indiana. Charles L. During their tenures at Notre Dame, they brought numerous refugees and intellectuals to campus; such as W. Yeats , Frank H.
Spearman , Jeremiah D. O'Hara also concentrated on expanding the graduate school. O'Hara strongly believed that the Fighting Irish football team could be an effective means to "acquaint the public with the ideals that dominate" Notre Dame. He wrote, "Notre Dame football is a spiritual service because it is played for the honor and glory of God and of his Blessed Mother. When St. Paul said: 'Whether you eat or drink, or whatsoever else you do, do all for the glory of God,' he included football. O'Donnell also continued O'Hara's work with the graduate school. He further formalized the graduate program and replaced the previous committee of graduate studies with a dean.
John J. Cavanaugh , president from to , devoted his efforts to raising academic standards and reshaping the university administration to better serve its educational mission and an expanded student body. He also stressed advanced studies and research while quadrupling the university's student population, with undergraduate enrollment seeing an increase by more than half, and graduate student enrollment growing fivefold. O'Shaughnessy, at the time the largest ever made to an American Catholic university. Theodore Hesburgh served as president for 35 years — and under his presidency Notre Dame underwent huge growth and transformation from a school mostly known for its football to a top-tier university, academic powerhouse, and preeminent Catholic university.
Enrollment nearly doubled from 4, to 9,, faculty more than doubled to , and degrees awarded annually doubled from 1, to 2, Hesburgh also made Notre Dame coeducational. Women had graduated every year since , but it was mostly religious sisters in graduate programs. After extensive debate, merging with St. Mary's was rejected, primarily because of the differential in faculty qualifications and pay scales.
Sheedy , Notre Dame's dean of Arts and Letters, "certain features formerly considered advantageous and enviable are now seen as anachronistic and out of place. In this environment of diversity, the integration of the sexes is a normal and expected aspect, replacing separatism. Mary's, became the first female undergraduate. The following year Mary Davey Bliley became the first woman to graduate from the university, with a bachelor's degree in marketing. In , a historic district comprising 21 contributing buildings was listed on the National Register of Historic Places. In the 18 years Edward Malloy was president, the school's reputation, faculty, and resources grew rapidly.
It was the largest in the history of Catholic higher education and the largest of any university without a medical school at the time. John I. Jenkins took over from Malloy in During his tenure, Notre Dame has increased its endowment, enlarged its student body, and undergone many construction projects on campus, including Compton Family Ice Arena , a new architecture hall, and additional residence halls. Its three buildings—Duncan Student Center west , Corbett Family Hall east and O'Neill Hall south house student life services, an indoor gym, a recreation center, the career center, a seat student ballroom, the departments of anthropology and psychology, a digital media center and the department of music and sacred music program.
A year later, after an architect arrived, the first Main Building was built and in the decades to follow the university expanded. It is consistently ranked and admired as one of the most beautiful university campuses in the United States and around the world, particularly noted for the Golden Dome , the Basilica and its stained glass windows, the quads and the greenery, the Grotto , Touchdown Jesus , and its statues and museums.
Joseph County , visited the campus. The district includes 21 contributing buildings in the core of the original campus such as Main Administration Building and the Basilica. The Main Building serves as the center for the university's administrative offices, including the office of the president. Its golden dome, topped by the statue of Mary, is the campus' most recognizable landmark. When the second iteration of the main building burned down in , the third and current was built in record time. The main building is located on Main Quad also known as God Quad , which is the oldest, most historic, and most central part of campus.
Behind the main building stand several facilities with administrative purposes and student services, including Carole Sadner Hall, Brownson Hall, and St' Liam's Hall, the campus health center. There are several religious buildings  The current Basilica of the Sacred Heart is located on the spot of Sorin's original church, which had become too small for the growing college. It is built in French Revival style, with stained glass windows imported from France.
The interior was painted by Luigi Gregori , an Italian painter invited by Sorin to be an artist in residence. The basilica also features a bell tower with a carillon. The Grotto of Our Lady of Lourdes was built in and serves as a replica of the original in Lourdes and is popular spot for prayer and meditation. Academic buildings are concentrated in the Center-South and Center-East sections of campus. McCourtney Hall, an interdisciplinary research facility, opened its doors for the fall semester, and ground was broken on the 60,square-foot 5, m 2 Walsh Family Hall of Architecture on the south end of campus near the DeBartolo Performing Arts Center ; a late opening is planned.
There are 31 undergraduate residence halls. The majority of the graduate students on campus live in one of four graduate housing complexes on campus. Additionally, a new residence for men, Dunne Hall , began accepting residents in fall Flaherty Hall , for women, was completed and opened that semester as well. The campus hosts several entertainment, general purpose, and common spaces.
LaFortune Student Center , commonly known as "LaFortune" or "LaFun," it is a four-story building built in that serves as student union and hosts social, recreational, cultural, and educational activities. As well as additional food chains, recreation facilities, and student offices, Duncan also hosts a student gym and a ballroom. Because of its long athletic tradition, the university features many athletic buildings, which are concentrated in the southern and eastern sections of campus.
The most prominent is Notre Dame Stadium ,  home of the Fighting Irish football team; it has been renovated several times and today can seat more than 80, people. Prominent venues include also the Edmund P. Joyce Center , with indoor basketball and volleyball courts, and the Compton Family Ice Arena ,  a two-rink facility dedicated to hockey. There are many outdoor fields, such as the Frank Eck Stadium for baseball. Legends of Notre Dame commonly referred to as Legends is a music venue , public house , and restaurant located on campus, just yards 91 m south of the stadium. Legends is made up of two parts: The Restaurant and Alehouse and the nightclub. The Office of Sustainability was created in the fall of at the recommendation of a Sustainability Strategy Working Group and appointed the first director in April The pursuit of sustainability is directly related to the Catholic mission of the university.
In , Notre Dame announced major environmental sustainability goals, including eliminating the use of coal by and reducing its carbon footprint by half by Joseph River , and heat recovery strategies. Current goals include cutting Notre Dame's carbon footprint by 83 percent by and eventually become carbon neutral, diverting 67 percent of all waste from landfills by The university owns several centers around the world used for international studies and research, conferences abroad, and alumni support. In addition to the five Global Getaways, the university also owns the Santa Fe Building in Chicago , where it offers its executive Master of Business Administration program.
The university's president is always a priest of the Congregation of Holy Cross. The first president was Edward Sorin and the current president is John I. As of July [update] , Marie Lynn Miranda is the provost , overseeing academic functions. They vote on potential trustees and sign off on all that board's major decisions. All of Notre Dame's undergraduate students are a part of one of the five undergraduate colleges at the school or are in the First Year of Studies program.
The First Year of Studies program was established in to guide freshmen through their first year at the school before they have declared a major. Each student is given an academic advisor who helps them to choose classes that give them exposure to any major they are interested in. Each admissions cycle, the Office of Undergraduate Admissions selects a small number of students for the Glynn Family Honors Program, which grants top students within the College of Arts and Letters and the College of Science access to smaller class sizes taught by distinguished faculty, endowed funding for independent research, and dedicated advising faculty and staff. Each of the five colleges offers graduate education in the form of master's and doctoral programs.
The university first offered graduate degrees, in the form of a Master of Arts MA , in the — academic year. The program expanded to include Master of Laws LLM and Master of Civil Engineering in its early stages of growth, before a formal graduate school education was developed with a thesis not required to receive the degrees. This changed in , with formal requirements developed for graduate degrees, including offering doctorates. Although Notre Dame does not have a medical school of its own, it offers a combined MD—PhD though the regional campus of the Indiana University School of Medicine , where Indiana medical students may spend the first two years of their medical education before transferring to the main medical campus at Indiana University—Purdue University Indianapolis.
The university hosts several different centers and institutes. In , Notre Dame announced plans to rename the Center for Ethics and Culture, an organization focused on spreading Catholic moral and intellectual traditions. Kroc , the widow of McDonald's owner Ray Kroc , and inspired by Father Hesburgh, is dedicated to research, education, and outreach, on the causes of violent conflict and the conditions for sustainable peace. It offers Ph.
It has contributed to international policy discussions about peacebuilding practices. The library system of the university is divided between the main library, the story Theodore M. Hesburgh Library , and each of the colleges and schools. The Hesburgh Library, completed in , is the third building to house the main collection. With over three million volumes, the library system was the single largest university library in the world at the time of completion.
Admission to Notre Dame is highly competitive; the fall incoming class admitted 3, from a pool of 23, for Of the most recent class, the class of , 48 percent were in the top 1 percent of their high school, and 94 percent were in the top 10 percent. The university practices a non-restrictive early action policy that allows admitted students to consider admission to Notre Dame as well as any other colleges that accepted them. While all entering students begin in the College of the First Year of Studies, 25 percent have indicated they plan to study in the liberal arts or social sciences, 24 percent in engineering, 24 percent in business, 24 percent in science, and 3 percent in architecture.
In , Tuition increased 3. This is slightly higher than the national average for tuition increases, which historically is about 3 percent each year. Notre Dame is a private university, so it offers the same tuition for in-state and out-of-state students. USNWR graduate rankings . USNWR graduate departmental rankings . For , Notre Dame ranked 11th for best undergraduate teaching, 24th for "best value" school and tied for 15th overall among "national universities" in the United States in U.
News ranks Mendoza College of Business undergraduate school as tied for 12th best in the U. Joseph Carrier, director of the Science Museum and the library, was a professor of chemistry and physics until Carrier taught that scientific research and its promise for progress were not antagonistic to the ideals of intellectual and moral culture endorsed by the Catholic Church. One of Carrier's students, John Augustine Zahm , was made professor and co-director of the science department at 23; by he was a nationally prominent scientist and naturalist.
He was active in the Catholic Summer School movement, which introduced Catholic laity to contemporary intellectual issues. His book Evolution and Dogma defended certain aspects of evolutionary theory as true, and argued, moreover, that even the great church teachers Thomas Aquinas and Augustine taught something like it. In , Zahm and former President Theodore Roosevelt embarked on a major expedition through the Amazon. In , Albert Zahm , John's brother, built an early wind tunnel to compare lift to drag of aeronautical models. Around , professor Jerome Green became the first American to send a wireless message.
Richard T. Sullivan taught English from to and published six novels, dozens of short stories, and various other efforts. He was known as a regional writer and a Catholic spokesman. Frank O'Malley was an English professor during the s—s. Influenced by philosophers Jacques Maritain , John U. Nef, and others, O'Malley developed a concept of Christian philosophy that was a fundamental element in his thought. It quickly emerged as part of an international Catholic intellectual revival, offering an alternative vision to positivist philosophy.
Hermens, and John U. It became a major forum for political ideas and modern political concerns, especially from a Catholic and scholastic tradition. Kenneth Sayre has explored the history of the Philosophy department. He stresses the abandonment of official Thomism to the philosophical pluralism of the s, with attention to the issue of being Catholic. He pays special attention to the charismatic personalities of Ernan McMullin and Ralph McInerny, key leaders of the department in the s and s. The College of Arts and Letters is distinguished for its contributions in the field of theology and religious studies,  while its affiliated Medieval Institute is the largest center for medieval studies in North America.
As of research continued in many fields. President Jenkins described his hope that Notre Dame would become "one of the pre-eminent research institutions in the world" in his inaugural address. Focus areas includes anti-poverty economic strategy, the premier Medieval Institute, Latino studies, sacred music, Italian studies, Catholic studies, psychology, aging and stress, social good, and theology.
The rise of Hitler and other dictators in the s forced numerous Catholic intellectuals to flee Europe; president John O'Hara brought many to Notre Dame. Positivism dominated American intellectual life in the s onward but in marked contrast, Gurian received a German Catholic education and wrote his doctoral dissertation under Max Scheler. The exiles developed a distinctive emphasis on the evils of totalitarianism. For example, the political science courses of Gerhart Niemeyer discussed communist ideology and were particularly accessible to his students.
He came to the university in and was a frequent contributor to the National Review and other conservative magazines. As of Fall , the Notre Dame student body consisted of 12, students, with 8, undergraduates and 3, graduate and professional Law, M. The strictly measured federal graduation rate for athletes was 98 percent for freshmen who entered between and , the highest in the country.
The residence halls, or dorms, are the focus of the student social and intramural life. Fraternities and sororities are not allowed on campus, as they are described as in opposition to the university's educational and residential mission. Over four-fifths of students live in the same residence hall for three consecutive years and about one-third of students live in the same residence hall for all four years As of October [update]. In spring the university also announced a policy that prohibits students living off-campus from participating in dorm activities such as intramural sports and dorm dances. There are over active student clubs at the University of Notre Dame, with the financial oversight of each club delegated the student-run Club Coordination Council.
The Notre Dame Club Coordination Council or simply the Club Coordination Council CCC is the branch of the Student Union of the university responsible for communicating issues facing undergraduate club issues, providing funding for undergraduate clubs, serving as the representative body of undergraduate student clubs, and working with student clubs to ensure that clubs can coordinate their programming of activities. With 6, participants, the university's intramural sports program was named the best in the country in by Sports Illustrated ,  while in The Princeton Review named Notre Dame as the top school where "Everyone Plays Intramural Sports. Many of the most popular student events held on campus are organized by the 30 residential halls.
Each dorm also hosts many formal and informal balls and dances each year. While religious affiliation is not a criterion for admission, more than 93 percent of students identify as Christian, with over 80 percent of those being Catholic. Collectively, Catholic Mass is celebrated over times per week on campus, and a large campus ministry program provides for the faith needs of the community. The university is the major seat of the Congregation of Holy Cross albeit not its official headquarters, which are in Rome.
Joseph lake from the Main Building. Mary lake, houses undergraduate seminarians. Notre Dame students run nine media outlets: three newspapers, a radio and television station, and several magazines and journals. The Scholastic magazine, begun as a one-page journal in ,  is issued twice monthly and claims to be the oldest continuous collegiate publication in the United States. The other magazine, The Juggler , is released twice a year and focuses on student literature and artwork. The newspapers have varying publication interests, with The Observer published daily and mainly reporting university and other news,  staffed by students from both Notre Dame and Saint Mary's College.
Unlike Scholastic and The Dome , The Observer is an independent publication and does not have a faculty advisor or any editorial oversight from the university. As of , The Observer and the Irish Rover were distributed to all students. The television station, NDtv, grew from one show in to a full hour channel with original programming by Notre Dame's sports teams are known as the Fighting Irish. Men's ice hockey is played in the big Ten conference  The Fighting Irish previously competed in the Horizon League for two periods in the s and s, then in the Big East Conference through — Notre Dame men compete in baseball, basketball, cross country, fencing, football, golf, ice hockey, lacrosse, soccer, swimming and diving, tennis and track and field; women's sports are basketball, cross country, fencing, golf, lacrosse, rowing, soccer, softball, swimming and diving, tennis, track and field, and volleyball.
The football team competes as a Football Bowl Subdivision FBS Independent  since its inception in with the exception of , when it competed as part of the Atlantic Coast Conference. Both fencing teams compete in the Midwest Fencing Conference ,  and the men's ice hockey team competes in the Big Ten Conference. Notre Dame's conference affiliations for all of its sports except football and fencing changed in July as a result of major conference realignment , and its fencing affiliation changed in July The Irish left the Big East for the ACC during a prolonged period of instability in the Big East;   while they maintain their football independence, they have committed to play five games per season against ACC opponents.
Notre Dame moved its hockey team to Hockey East. There are many theories behind the adoption of the team name  but it is known that the Fighting Irish name was used in the early s with respect to the football team and was popularized by alumnus Francis Wallace in his New York Daily News columns. The Notre Dame Leprechaun is the mascot of the athletic teams. Created by Theodore W. Drake in , the leprechaun was first used on the football pocket schedule and later on the football program covers. It was featured on the cover of Time in November Since its inception in , Fighting Irish Media , made up of part time student workers and full time producers, has filmed nearly all live Fighting Irish sporting events for digital and linear broadcasts.
In , the University of Notre Dame and Under Armour reached an agreement in which the company provides uniforms, apparel, equipment, and monetary compensation to Notre Dame for 10 years. According to some analysts without direct connection to the university or its athletic department, Notre Dame promotes Muscular Christianity through its athletic programs. The Notre Dame football team's history began when the Michigan team brought the game to Notre Dame in and played against a group of students. George Gipp was the school's legendary football player of the late s. He played semiprofessional baseball and smoked, drank, and gambled when not playing sports. He was also described as humble, generous to the needy, and a man of integrity.
The team competes in 80,seat Notre Dame Stadium. Six years later it was forced by the NCAA to vacate all those victories because an investigation found that ineligible players had taken part. Kelly succeeded Charlie Weis , who was fired in November after five seasons. During home games, activities occur all over campus and dorms decorate their halls with a traditional item e.
Traditional activities begin at midnight with the Drummers' Circle, involving the Band of the Fighting Irish 's drumline and beginning the other festivities that will continue the rest of the gameday Saturday. The entire band will play a concert at the steps of Bond Hall, then march into the stadium, leading fans and students alike across campus to the game. Notre Dame Stadium student section wearing "The Shirt" for the football season.
Walter Cunningham and Mrs. Dubose are covered above, but try to form some of these connections yourself. Boo Radley is the key character who connects the two parts of the story. He spends much of the first part in hiding, occasionally leaving gifts for the kids in a tree chapter 7 , or giving them a blanket during a fire chapter 8. In the second part however, he emerges to save Jem from Bob Ewell and is actually a rather unassuming man. In many ways, the first part of the novel sets up and drives these ideas home. I have ample firsthand experience. So is there an issue when a story of Black injustice only elevates white people as heroes? Which brings us to a topic that is a bit knottier than it might first seem. This means that you might agree for a paragraph or two, emphasising the importance of context, before expanding on this idea of courage in the third.
In your opinion, what is the most central and relevant message from To Kill a Mockingbird? Challenge: In To Kill a Mockingbird , how are isolation and loneliness different, and what is Lee suggesting about society in this regard? Something that I want you to take away from this video is being able to develop a contention statement that is a complete, solid foundation for your essay. It generally means bravery and fearlessness, but what kinds of courage are explored in the novel?
Immediately, we can see that this is a theme-based prompt. You could contend that the novel is indeed about courage, as Atticus not only teaches it to his children but also applies it to his defence of Tom Robinson in the face of structural racism. However, courage is also linked more broadly to empathy, which is explored as a panacea for discrimination. A complete contention like this breaks up your points neatly, but also grounds everything you have to say in an essay that still addresses the question and the idea of courage.
For example, paragraph one would start by looking at the forms of courage he teaches to his children. Not only does he teach his children about the importance of courage, but he goes on to exemplify those very lessons himself. However, in the final paragraph we might take a bit of a turn. Atticus, in having the courage to see Tom as an equal, is probably reflecting another very important value in the novel—namely, empathy.
Though he admires Mrs. The idea of empathy as a form of courage is also reflected in what he teaches them about Boo Radley. In other words, he sees empathy as a form of courage in being the first to break social stigmas and overcome the various forms of discrimination that separate us. Now to touch base again with the take away message. We contended that the novel is about courage because Atticus teaches it to Scout and Jem while also representing it in the trial.
We also contended that courage is linked to empathy, another key value that he imparts as it helps to overcome social barriers like discrimination. The aim was to build an essay on a contention that clearly props up the body of the essay itself, even when we were more confident with some other themes, and I think this plan does a pretty good job of covering that. Do I need to know all of them? And in answer to your questions, whilst its best you analyse the whole collection to some extent, knowing 10 or so strategically chosen poems really well, covering all themes and types should hold you in good stead for any question thrown at you in the exam. Peter Skrzynecki wrote his poems over a significant amount of time, starting in and ending in To learn more about the importance of context in VCE English, check out this blog post.
The three categories of poetry to look for are:. Peter Skrzynecki showcases his connection to Australia through poems that depict often idyllic landscapes, or the lives of common fauna of Australia, such as birds and fish. These poems such as Immigrants at Central Station, Migrant Hostel and The Polish Immigrant offer an insight into the emotionally turbulent and difficult journey migrants go through to live in Australia. These poems also demonstrate the experiences of relief and joy felt when arriving, as well as emotions of fear, trepidation and disconnect in regards to both their new home and their old world.
Often the most emotionally pulling, these poems tug at the heartstrings and showcase the relationships between Peter Skrzynecki and his family, as well as his exploration of his heritage, his ties to his Polish background. The author of this text, as well as a character in his own right, Peter describes his triumphs and struggles of immigrating to Australia in his poems.
We also discover that he struggles with the English language, is a hard worker and has had cancer twice in his foot. The surroundings in which a person finds themselves, as well as the place they call home is an essential part of identity, as it showcases what place one identifies with and feels safe in. Several of the poems are set in places of transition, such as at a train station, this helps to emphasize the displacement some migrants may feel as they struggle to acclimatise to their new home. There are several poems set in graveyards or in Europe where Peter questions his knowledge of where he came from, and his sense of connection to these people and places.
One of the most interesting set of poems regarding heritage is the poems regarding the different sections of a graveyard for the different groups, through this Skrzynecki touches on how most will never fully part with their heritage, instead, even in death, most will reconnect with their upbringing and hold on to their roots. However, customs are also seen to be the way in which migrants make themselves at home whilst being able to still identify with their past. Through the generational gap between Peter and his father, we can identify the difficulty older generations may have in letting go of customs, whilst the younger new Australians often find it far easier to attach themselves to new traditions. Despite his father repeating it until he never forgets, this forgetfulness illustrates the effort which is often required to remain connected to heritage when physically distant from it.
This struggle with language, both the disconnect and joy that comes with communicating and the opportunities it affords individuals, is essential in determining how one identifies themselves. We also see this regret of disconnect when Skrzynecki writes about his mother and the photograph he has of her and the man that was his father, and how he wishes he had asked about it more. Skrzynecki often reminisces about his childhood and uses it as a way to explore both his experience in his new world of Australia, and his old world of his Polish roots. Using this jargon regarding travel, Skrzynecki reminds readers of the many miles migrants often have to travel to reach Australia. Skrzynecki often uses nature to symbolise the migrant experience, as demonstrated by the birds in his poem Migrant Hostel.
Nature is also a major element in Skrzynecki's effort to become an Australian poet, his frequent referencing of Australian landscapes signposting his journey to identify as an Australian, as well as an Australian poet. Instead we find he creates a sense of belonging by cultivating a home of his own, a garden. In his rediscovery of the heirlooms we often see his disconnect from his background and his regret of not learning more about it. To download, simply fill out the form below! The Crucible is a four-act play that portrays the atmosphere of the witch trials in Salem. As an allegory of McCarthyism, the play primarily focuses on criticising the ways in which innocent people are prosecuted without any founded evidence, reflecting the unjust nature of the corrupted authoritarian system that governs Salem.
People start scapegoating others to escape prosecution and falsely accuse others to gain power and land, facilitating mass hysteria which ultimately leads to the downfall of the Salem theocracy. The protagonist John Proctor is one of those that decides to defy the courts and sacrifices his life towards the end of the play, ending the play on a quiet note in contrast with its frenzied conflict throughout the acts. The Dressmaker shows the audience the treatment towards Tilly Dunnage upon her return to fictional town Dungatar years after she was wrongly accused of being a murderess.
Rosalie Ham critiques the impacts of rumours on Tilly and Molly, also establishing her condemnation of the societal stigma of this isolated town. Tilly starts making haute couture outfits to transform the lives of the women in the town and help them present themselves as more desirable and elevate their ranks. However, the townspeople still see Tilly negatively, except for some individuals who are able to look past the opinions of others and get to know Tilly themselves. Both The Crucible and The Dressmaker talk extensively about class.
Ultimately, both The Crucible and The Dressmaker are set in classist societies where there is no opportunity for social advancement. As such, for both Salem and Dungatar, the very idea that anyone could move between the classes and make a better life for themselves is inherently dangerous. What we can see here is that class shapes the way communities deal with crisis. Anything that overturns class is dangerous because it challenges the social order — meaning that individuals such as Reverend Parris in The Crucible , or Councillor Pettyman in The Dressmaker may lose all their power and authority. Having travelled the outside world, she represents a worldly mindset and breadth of experiences which the townspeople know they cannot match.
Rather, the people do it themselves; putting people back in their place through rumour and suspicion. However, by creating extravagant, expensive dresses for the townspeople, Tilly inadvertently provides people with another way to express class. The setting forms an essential thematic element of The Crucible and The Dressmaker. For Salem, its citizens adopt a mindset of religious and cultural superiority — believing that their faith, dedication to hard work and unity under God make them the most blessed people in the world. Individuals as diverse as Rebecca Nurse and Thomas Putnam perceive Salem to be a genuinely incredible place. Not much of the same can be said for The Dressmaker. The next part of the name is 'tar', a sticky substance, creating the impression that Dungatar's people are stuck in their disgusting ways.
The townspeople of Dungatar are acutely aware of their own inadequacy, and that is why they fight so hard to remain isolated from the outside world. Tilly is therefore a threat because she challenges their isolation and forces the men and women of Dungatar to reconsider why their community has shunned progress for so long. In short, she makes a once-isolated people realise that fear, paranoia, division and superstition are no way to run a town, and brings them to acknowledge the terribly harmful impacts of their own hatred. On top of that, because Salem is literally the only Christian, European settlement for miles, it is simply impossible for them to even think about alternatives to their way of life.
The township is isolated, but unlike Salem, it at least has contact with the outside world. All Tilly does, therefore, is show the people of Dungatar an alternative to their way of life. But, for a community used to the way they have lived for decades, it ultimately contributes to its destruction. The following essay topic breakdown was written by Lindsey Dang. Before writing our topic sentences, we need to look at our key words first. The keywords in this prompt are outcasts and treated. So, who are considered outcasts in the two texts? Outcasts can be those of traditionally lower classes, they can be characters with physical flaws, those that are different to others or those who do not abide by the standards of their respective societies.
How would we describe the treatment towards these characters? Are they treated nicely or are they mistreated and discriminated against? Do ALL members of that community have that same treatment towards those outcasts or are there exceptions? Remember this point because we might be able to use this to challenge the prompt. Explore how communities respond to crisis. People must conform to societal expectations in The Crucible and The Dressmaker. Do you agree? Gender repression is rife in both The Crucible and The Dressmaker. In Stasiland , Anna Funder, the author and first-person narrator , meets and listens to the ordinary people of East Germany : those who resisted the GDR dictatorship, those who were crushed by it, and those who diligently and remorselessly worked for it as Stasi informants or officers.
As Anna speaks with those whose lives have been traumatised by the Stasi, she reflects on how the reunified Germany has dealt with or ignored its citizens' trauma and whether memory can be reconciled. Anna is an Australian working for a television station in Berlin in As an outsider Anna is uniquely positioned to ask East Germans about their experiences , as they do not have to battle with prior knowledge and experience to share their stories. She is interested in the former German Democratic Republic and what has happened to the East German people since the country reunified with West Germany.
She became curious after learning that there are people putting together documents that were shredded by the Stasi. The Stasi were the East German secret police and internal surveillance and defense force. Headed by Erich Mielke, they conducted surveillance on the East German population, aided by a vast number of civilian informants. While in Leipzig, Anna meets with a woman called Miriam Weber, who attempted to sneak out of East Germany when she was just a teenager. Miriam, sleep deprived and tortured, lied about receiving help from an organisation to cross the Wall and was sentenced to jail time.
Her husband Charlie was also imprisoned by the Stasi and died while in custody. Miriam was told he committed suicide by hanging, but she suspects he was killed after the Stasi refused to show her his body and went to great lengths to hide Charlie during the funeral. Returning to the apartment she rents in Berlin, Anna puts an advertisement in the paper calling for former Stasi agents and informers to share their stories with her. She also visits and speaks to Karl-Eduard von Schitzler, a hateful man who hosted a propaganda-filled television program that criticised West Germany and gave false information about Communist success. In their discussions the former Stasi agents are concerned with justifying their involvement with the Stasi, although many also remain committed to communist ideals and await with anticipation the next revolution and restoration of the communist government.
Anna rents her apartment from an unpredictable and evasive young woman called Julia. Over time, Julia comes to trust Anna and shares her story of the Stasi cruelly interfering with her life. Anna is disappointed in the puzzlers, realising that their work is futile and there is no real effort put towards uncovering the lost information. Almost all East Germans were left reeling at the sudden collapse of their government. For many, the collapse of the GDR took with it ideological security and made them nostalgic for the past.
The nostalgia for the regime that Funder witnesses shows how people cling to certainty and position and sometimes struggle with new freedoms. However, having spoken with so many individuals whose lives were ruined by the Stasi, Anna feels that the old regime was oppressive and authoritarian, and that the East Germans are better off with the challenges of their freedom, rather than stuck with the certainties of their oppression.
Never Let Me Go is set in a dystopian alternative reality in England in the s. The narrator, Kathy H, is a thirty-one-year-old 'carer' — a clone who looks after other clones who are donating their organs. Kathy is about to retire after a long career as a carer to become a donor herself, meaning she will soon 'complete' a euphemism for dying. However, this premise is not immediately apparent to the reader. At the start of the novel, Kathy informs us she will be leaving her role as carer in a few months and has started to write down memories of her life, sorting through her time as a 'student' at Hailsham. However, at the start of the novel the reader is not aware that Kathy is a clone, although she appears to be addressing an insider from her world.
In the first third of the novel Kathy reflects on her childhood and teenage years at Hailsham. Hailsham is an institution where clones are looked after by 'guardians' and referred to as 'students', and which at first appears to be a private boarding school with a heavy focus on the arts and creativity. Their best works of painting, pottery, drawing or poetry were selected and taken away by a woman known as 'Madame', for what the students presume, and what is later confirmed to be, a gallery.
The students know they are different from their guardians and the people who live outside Hailsham, referred to as 'normals', but the truth of what the clones are and their certain fate is not fully articulated until the characters are adults. Kathy is close friends with a confident and controlling girl called Ruth and a boy named Tommy, whose work is never selected for the Gallery — an acknowledgement that defines status at the school. Tommy, teased and excluded, struggles to control his temper and often explodes into furies of rage. This song makes Kathy emotional, and one day she is caught dancing to it by Madame, who Kathy is surprised to see is in tears watching her.
Kathy presumes Madame is upset because she knows Kathy can never have children. Ruth and Tommy start dating and Part Two sees the three friends reach early adulthood and move to a place known as the Cottages, to live with other clones from around the country and experience some freedom before beginning their donations or training to become a carer. Norfolk exists in the imagination of the Hailsham students as a 'lost corner', where things they have lost will be found. Ruth was secretly desperate to find her possible and hoped to find her working in an office.
Ruth dreams of working in an office and her wish that her possible will be an office worker is one of the only suggestions we have that the clones secretly long for more from their lives and view their possibles as versions of them and what they are capable of. Back at the Cottages, Ruth continues to be manipulative and self-promoting, leading to a falling out with Kathy where she decides to leave early to begin training as a carer and falls out of contact with Ruth and Tommy. She hopes they will attempt to get a deferral from Madame.
After Ruth 'completes', Kathy and Tommy finally become a couple. They visit Madame to ask for a deferral, who informs them there is no such thing. They learn from Madame that Hailsham was an attempt to reform the treatment of clones in their youth by proving they had souls. In most centers, clones are reared in deplorable, abusive conditions. They also learn that Hailsham had to be shut down. Never Let Me Go is a story about injustice and social stratification, where one group is made to suffer for the benefit of another. The 'normals' can deny their mortality while forcing the clones to confront their death sooner than their natural life span , and by shutting down schools like Hailsham, they do not need to think about the ethics of their choices.
Tommy dies and Kathy resigns herself to her fate as a donor. At the end of the novel, Kathy misses Tommy and Ruth, but consoles herself that she will always have her memories with her. Ishiguro explores the extent to which people accept their predetermined fate and how they can find meaning and love within those often-cruel limitations. A textual feature is a component of the text used by authors to give meaning to their work. It is necessary to engage with the actual construction of the texts and to discuss textual features using metalanguage terms that describe and analyse language. To write a thorough and thoughtful essay, you need to understand the textual features and how they are connected to overall thematic ideas.
Structural features and metalanguage can be used as evidence of authorial intent and deepen our understanding of how writers use literary techniques to develop ideas and create meaning. Stasiland is an example of creative nonfiction, meaning it tells a story of factual events and real people using literary and poetic techniques. Never Let Me Go has elements of multiple genres: dystopian fiction, speculative historical fiction, science fiction and bildungsroman. This is true of Never Let Me Go , as the clones pay with their lives and freedom for the utopian elimination of disease and extended life spans of the 'normals '.
However, while clearly set in a horrific dystopian world, Never Let Me Go notably differs from other novels in the dystopian genre, as the oppressed clones never once consider rebelling against the status quo — the most Kathy and Tommy hope for is an extension before beginning their donations and 'completing'. Ishiguro has stated in multiple interviews that he was most interested in exploring why oppressed persons never consider rebelling against their fate — what leads them to passive acceptance of their position in society? In his exploration of this question, Ishiguro explores the development and growing up of Kathy, Ruth, and Tommy, trying to understand why they all submit without protest to their fate.
In this sense the novel is a bildungsroman. Never Let Me Go follows Kathy, Ruth and Tommy throughout their childhood and adolescence at Hailsham, their experience of limited freedom at the Cottages as young adults, and finally the reality of their short adult life as organ donors. Of course, Never Let Me Go also fits into the category of speculative historical fiction and science fiction. The novel is set in an alternate historical reality where genetic science rapidly advanced after World War Two significantly outstripping the real-world and clones have been used to extend life in the UK for decades.
However, Ishiguro does not give much narrative weight to describing the political reality of his fictional world , and neither does he offer much scientific explanation for the existence of clones. Themes are the big ideas about human experience that a text explores, and form part of the message the author is hoping to communicate. A sound knowledge of key themes is essential for developing a thoughtful essay. All essay topics will ask you to explore thematic ideas in one way or another.
Both Stasiland and Never Let Me Go illustrate the importance of remembering through the very construction of the text: in the narrative voice and narrative structure. Both narrators are looking into the past to try to make sense of history. Stasiland is a compilation of the stories of all kinds of people involved and impacted by the GDR , including those who rebelled against the system, those who supported it and those crushed by it. Funder said in an interview with the Sydney Morning Herald after the publication of Stasiland that, 'When [Germans] read my book, people in the East are not proud of themselves. They'd rather not be reminded that other people were braver than they were. So there is a huge force to pretend that the Stasi regime was not as bad as it was.
This is working against forgetting, and against time' Stasiland , Julia explains the importance of these portraits, telling Anna 'For anyone to understand a regime like the GDR, the stories of ordinary people must be told. These 'things in their pasts' are not just trauma and hardship, but the knowledge that people just like them — their spouses, children, friends and neighbours — were capable of such cowardice, betrayal, self-interest and cruelty. It is this knowledge that Funder wants to preserve — that ordinary people are capable of both extraordinary courage and extraordinary cowardice.
We are terrible…They are terrible. The Germans are terrible' Stasiland , Anna reflects that East Germans were 'long used to thinking the bad Germans were on the other side of the Wall' and now he is forced to ask 'were his people, now broke or drunk, shamed or fled or imprisoned or dead, any good at all? Kathy recollects and structures her memories of her childhood and relationships to understand them as a unified whole, essentially establishing her identity.
Assuming a reader places her autobiography in a social framework with the purpose of communicating her life , which turns it into a historical account that exists beyond the limit of her death. The way memory can be distorted is particularly clear in relation to the idea of nostalgia for a brutal past. This idea is explored differently in Stasiland and Never Let Me Go , with Funder condemning nostalgia as blinding people to the horrors of the past, and Ishiguro illustrating how drawing comfort from the past can help people through difficult times.
Anna reflects:. Most of the people at these parties are too young to remember the GDR anyway. They are just looking for something to yearn for' Stasiland , Funder is critical of nostalgia because it minimises past injustice. Conversely, in Never Let Me Go , nostalgia and false memories are shown to be consolatory and even useful. Before Kathy begins to recount her childhood, she mentions a donor who was once under her care who 'knew he was close to completing' NLMG , 5. He asks Kathy to share memories of her childhood and 'What he wanted was not just to hear about Hailsham, but to remember Hailsham, just like it had been his own childhood. Although this man is falsifying his memories, he is not editing and revising history like some people in east Berlin , he is replacing them entirely to suppress the trauma of his own past.
He is not yearning for a return to an idealised past the way some people in Stasiland do. For Kathy, nostalgia for her childhood helps her reconnect with her friends, creating a sense of belonging and identity. Her attachment to Hailsham strengthens her worldview, her relational bonds and gives meaning to her life. Nostalgic memory in Never Let Me Go brings comfort, although you could argue that it also fosters passivity and acceptance in the face of oppression. By developing your own interpretation, you become a better English student by:. To overcome the issues above, you need to be confident with your own interpretation of the text. Compare the ways in which Stasiland and Never Let Me Go depict the difficulties in uncovering the past.
Learn more about this technique in this video:. We need to identify where these quotes come from in the texts and why they might be significant. The Stasiland quote from p. In the end the only decision was indecision, the mayor buried the bunker and hoped that people in 50 years might know what to do with it. Thus, this quote points to the difficulty countries have in creating a national identity when there is horror and trauma in their history. The Never Let Me Go quote from p. Therefore, this quote points to how memories, even false ones, can reconstruct individual identity. P2: Sometimes people hold on tightly to particular memories as a way to affirm their identity as losing those memories is akin to erasing or denying the legitimacy of their experiences.
As the VCE English exam creeps up on us, many of you will be testing your writing skills under timed conditions if not, then you better!!! But, have you sat down under timed conditions for 15 minutes of Reading Time? Have you thought about how to maximise reading time? Many of you may have already figured out how you will approach Reading Time in your exam. Some of you will have a rough idea, while some will pay attention to detail — knowing how to spend each and every minute in that 15 minutes of silence. During Year 12, I was somewhere in between. Keep reading afterwards for more details!
It is worth spending a few extra seconds contemplating how you would break down your other available prompts. Reason: This may obscure your interpretation of the contention. The contention is the first thing you need to get right. So sit back, read the article for what it is, and absorb as much of the argument presented to you. The more times you read something, the better your mind will consolidate the cold material in front of you! You've done all that hard work thinking up 'mental plans' during Reading Time, let's put them to paper.
Don't skip this step, because you would otherwise have wasted your precious 15 minutes getting ahead. Moreover, it's highly likely you'll forget the points you want to write about if you just store it in your brain. Remember that you are in an adrenaline-driven situation, where nerves can get the better of you. Avoid any mind blanks by guaranteeing yourself success and write the damn plan down! Aiming for an essay in 60 minutes can often turn into 65 minutes, or even longer.
At the very least if you do go over time with a '55 minute per essay' rule, you will put yourself in a position where you can afford to go slightly overtime, and yet still have enough time for other essays. This is a step that many people skip, but if you're reading this blog - you won't be joining them. A quick review of your work can help you edit errors you didn't notice while writing. As you practise in the lead up to exams, take note of what errors you tend to make when writing. Is it expression, punctuation, or spelling errors? Keep an eye on your most common mistakes when proof-reading to be more a more effective editor. It is these small incremental changes you can make in your essays which add up to make a powerful impact on the final product. What's up everyone!
So, if you like the idea of that, then make sure you give this video a thumbs up so that I know that this is something that you're super keen on and that you'll find helpful. So, I've taken liberties since this is the first one that we've ever done of choosing my own essay topic that I was interested in doing.Rational explanations are ground up by the drama of the rumor mill, and people see only what they Compare And Contrast Elizabeth Proctor And Abigail Williams to see whatever keeps them in the Chaos And Order In A Midsummer Nights Dream graces of society and makes them feel the best about themselves in situations that don't appear to have easy explanations. Compare And Contrast Elizabeth Proctor And Abigail Williams yourself Compare And Contrast Elizabeth Proctor And Abigail Williams others. Compare And Contrast Elizabeth Proctor And Abigail Williams continues to act under the assumption that his Compare And Contrast Elizabeth Proctor And Abigail Williams is of the utmost importance to him, and she does not Binge Drinking In College the affair. Emotive Value Of Colour Essay from the original on November 2, Compare And Contrast Elizabeth Proctor And Abigail Williams We will Importance Of Fossils you back in 15 min. ISBN