➊ Pharisees Arguments In Rabbinical Research

Tuesday, October 12, 2021 12:43:49 PM

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Rabbi Abraham SKORKA - The Pharisees as Seen by Medieval Rabbis

Scholars are currently divided on this issue. No one can claim either side of this argument as fact. We might have two independent sources for these stories, but it is also possible that the core story came from just one source: the author of the Gospel of Mark. As long as the core story remained intact…that Jesus of Nazareth had been arrested by the Romans; tried and convicted of treason against Caesar; executed by crucifixion; buried in some manner; and shortly thereafter, his disciples believed that he appeared to them, in some fashion…the other details found in the Passion Narrative may be literary invention fiction! Think of that! It would certainly answer a lot of questions. Why does the original Resurrection Story in Mark have zero appearance stories?

My, my, my. The evidence for a fantastical, never-heard-of-before-or-since Resurrection is much, much weaker than the average Christian layperson sitting in the pew on Sunday realizes! An excellent article and commentary following. One item I would like to mention about absolute proof seemingly demanded by unbelievers. There is absolute proof available, but it takes just a mustard seed sized bit of faith for it to be revealed. God does not force Himself on anyone, so it is that faith which opens a door, opens eyes and ears to allow the blind to see and deaf to hear. In the quote of the Babylonian Talmud the name Yeshu is used. Why is that Jesus, our beloved Saviour. No eye witnesses in the Bible. The familiar attributions of the Gospels to Matthew, Mark, Luke and John come from the mid 2nd century, and later, and we have no good historical reason to accept these attributions.

Those elders who were conversant in Asia with John, the disciple of the Lord, affirming that John conveyed to them that information. And he remained among them up to the times of Trajan [98 C. Edward has given us three quotations to consider. The first two concern the New Testament Gospels, claiming that they are 1 Anonymous documents, and 2 Not written by eyewitnesses. No one disputes this. The quotation continues, however, by noting that the earliest external testimony to the authorship of the documents dates to the mid-second century note: some would put this as early as A. So far as I know, no other names have ever been associated with these documents than those of Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John.

That this unanimous testimony dates from the early second century must also be regarded to have at least some historical significance. Furthermore, consider just a few points in favor of these authors. This is testified by strong tradition. It was indisputably acknowledged before the close of the second century and there is no positive evidence that the book ever circulated without this title. Internal evidence also plausibly points to Matthean authorship. Notice, also, that if Matthew really was the author of the Gospel attributed to him, then it is simply false to assert that these documents are not based on eyewitness testimony. For Matthew would have been an eyewitness of many of these events. And if the apostle John authored the gospel attributed to him, then he also was an eyewitness.

What, then, might we say about the fourth gospel? This becomes more likely when we remember that the beloved disciple is constantly in the company of Peter, while the Synoptics Mark 5: 37; 9: 2; 33; par. It has also been noted that in this gospel most of the important characters are designated with rather full expressions: Simon Peter; Thomas Didymus; Judas son of Simon Iscariot; Caiaphas, the high priest that year. Strangely, however, John the Baptist is simply called John, even when he is first introduced 1: 6; cf. Mark 1: 4 par. Much more could be said in defense of the traditional authorship of the four New Testament Gospels.

It is clear, however, that the matter is not so patently obvious as the scholars cited by Edward imply. There is vigorous debate and discussion about these issues and no one has succeeded in proving that the four traditional ascriptions are false. Moreover, there is the historical weight of church tradition in their favor, along with internal evidence as well. At the very least, the matter cannot be dismissed with a couple scholarly citations and a wave of the hand as Edward seems content to do. It must be said from the outset that he has taken this citation out of context, not properly understood it, and drawn a false conclusion from it.

The citation he give us comes from Irenaeus, Against Heresies 2. In the section immediately prior to this one i. Here is what Irenaeus says in Against Heresies 2. For He did not seem one thing while He was another, as those affirm who describe Him as being man only in appearance; but what He was, that He also appeared to be. Being a Master, therefore, He also possessed the age of a Master, not despising or evading any condition of humanity, nor setting aside in Himself that law which He had appointed for the human race, but sanctifying every age, by that period corresponding to it which belonged to Himself. For He came to save all through means of Himself— all, I say, who through Him are born again to God— infants, and children, and boys, and youths, and old men.

He therefore passed through every age, becoming an infant for infants, thus sanctifying infants; a child for children, thus sanctifying those who are of this age, being at the same time made to them an example of piety, righteousness, and submission; a youth for youths, becoming an example to youths, and thus sanctifying them for the Lord. So likewise He was an old man for old men, that He might be a perfect Master for all, not merely as respects the setting forth of the truth, but also as regards age, sanctifying at the same time the aged also, and becoming an example to them likewise.

One can see from this quotation that Irenaeus is concerned to stress that Jesus recapitulated every stage of human life in order to redeem human beings at any and every stage of life. Let me conclude, then, with a few citations from Irenaeus, which will easily dispel what Edward has alleged in his comment:. What could be clearer? Here Irenaeus affirms both the crucifixion and resurrection of Jesus. These citations from Irenaeus are sufficient, I think, to show that Edward has erred in claiming that Irenaeus rejected the crucifixion and resurrection of Jesus.

Indeed, he embraced both, just as the New Testament teaches. So Gary, I guess we should just not believe in the apparitions of saints, ignore medical miracles that are backed up by medical doctors and disbelieve the accounts of people who were clinically dead just because you want to pass them off as illusions? There are doctors who basically put there reputations on the line in these accounts. Dear atheists, all the Jewish leaders had to do to destroy the credibility of Jesus was produce the dead corpse of Jesus. As Christians, we have evidence to point to the historicity and Divinity of Jesus. It convinced notable atheists like William Greenleaf and Lee Strobel to abandon their atheism and become Christians. Very few today consider the great difficulty in finding and maintaining manuscript evidence for almost years.

It is not as if there was pencil and paper everywhere or in every home. Census records for various locations in Rome were likely held for a certain number of years once taxes were collected. Those who had the means the parchment and ink had to maintain that in safe ways. Notice the records that were maintained, through all the difficulties of time are only 22 or more documents of substantial length; and they were maintained by people who actually cared.

The same goes for the Jews and the Greeks. Remember after all that upon the existence of an empty tomb they tried to cover it up. Who among the Jews or Romans are going to write about an empty tomb which would by any interpretation have a nefarious effect on the political purposes of Rome and the Jewish leadership. To write with accolades that someone honored or wondered about the miraculous life that Jesus led with Twelve disciples would have already cast you into the role of a believer, a cast you may not want to write about particularly if you were of the Jewish nobility or a Roman leader of influence. The fact is non-Christians historians and writers in the century had written about Jesus and Christians during the Roman Empire era. Atheists just want to say what they want to say.

They have faith to not believe in Jesus Christ as I have faith to believe in Him completely, Historically and wholeheartedly. Your email address will not be published. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Notify me of follow-up comments by email. Notify me of new posts by email. Periscope Our Store. Toggle navigation. Go to the shop. Post Views: 45, Share this. Harper 7 years ago. Michael Gleghorn 7 years ago. Hello Harper, Thanks for your question. Thanks again for writing! Paul 7 years ago. Thank you. Hello Paul, Thanks for your question. Brad Rice 7 years ago. Hello Brad, Thanks for writing — and for your kind comments at the beginning of your letter. Rick 7 years ago. Hello Rick, Thanks for your question.

Gordon 6 years ago. Carlos Navarrete 4 years ago. The majority of New Testament historians not just evangelicals would agree on the following historical facts: 1. Jesus of Nazareth was put to death by crucifixion. He was buried in a tomb most likely by someone named Joseph of Arimathea. The tomb was discovered empty early Sunday morning, probably by some of His women followers. So I would recommend the following books: 1. Michael Beaty 6 years ago. Kenny Strawn 6 years ago.

John Stewart 6 years ago. Michael Gleghorn 6 years ago. Hello John, Thanks for your comment. Dan 5 years ago. Hello, Excellent written article. To me with current available facts about Jesus, both narratives could be true. Kostas 5 years ago. Dear friend Gary. Jerry Johnson 5 years ago. Thank you for any help you can provide. Michael Gleghorn 5 years ago. Hello Jerry, Thanks for writing. Best wishes in your research! Michael Gleghorn. Rodney Wagner 5 years ago. Byron Barlowe 5 years ago. Sorry for the delay. Care to comment or ask questions, Rodney? What leads you to trust this source? Do you agree with it—in what ways?

Hi Gary, Thanks for your comment. MGleghorn probe. Charles Spearman 5 years ago. Gary …your replies are being put to sleep! LOL Excellent work Gleghorn! JRook 4 years ago. Michael Gleghorn 4 years ago. Moussa Tamer 4 years ago. Does space, without the universe of stars, planet, comets, etc. Sue Bohlin 4 years ago. Hi Ron, I asked my husband, Dr. Jocie 4 years ago. Thistle 4 years ago. I believe that traditional Christianity can be proven false in just five minutes by knocking out the three pillars of the Christian Faith belief system : 1.

The Witness of the Holy Spirit And here is the evidence that destroys these three superstition-based claims: 1. Christians believe that the appearance stories in the Gospels and in the Early Creed are historical facts based primarily on the following: 1. Answer: Absolutely not! Jim McCrea 4 years ago. Keith 4 years ago. Thanks for your ministry. Hubert Luns 4 years ago. Commonitus Sensus 4 years ago. Excellent article! Keep up the research and search for truth! Thanks for sharing. Edward C Reyes 3 years ago. Michael Gleghorn 3 years ago. He reports elsewhere that the Pharisees did not grow to power until the reign of Queen Salome Alexandra. Later texts like the Mishnah and the Talmud record a host of rulings by rabbis, some of whom are believed to be from among the Pharisees, concerning sacrifices and other ritual practices in the Temple, torts, criminal law, and governance.

In their day, the influence of the Pharisees over the lives of the common people was strong and their rulings on Jewish law were deemed authoritative by many. According to Josephus, the Pharisees appeared before Pompey asking him to interfere and restore the old priesthood while abolishing the royalty of the Hasmoneans altogether. In Rome, Herod sought the support of Mark Antony and Octavian , and secured recognition by the Roman Senate as king, confirming the termination of the Hasmonean dynasty. According to Josephus, Sadducean opposition to Herod led him to treat the Pharisees favorably. Despite his restoration and expansion of the Second Temple , Herod's notorious treatment of his own family and of the last Hasmonaeans further eroded his popularity.

According to Josephus, the Pharisees ultimately opposed him and thus fell victims 4 BCE to his bloodthirstiness. While it stood, the Second Temple remained the center of Jewish ritual life. The Pharisees, like the Sadducees, were politically quiescent, and studied, taught, and worshiped in their own way. At this time serious theological differences emerged between the Sadducees and Pharisees. The notion that the sacred could exist outside the Temple, a view central to the Essenes , was shared and elevated by the Pharisees. At first the values of the Pharisees developed through their sectarian debates with the Sadducees; then they developed through internal, non-sectarian debates over the law as an adaptation to life without the Temple, and life in exile, and eventually, to a more limited degree, life in conflict with Christianity.

No single tractate of the key Rabbinic texts, the Mishnah and the Talmud , is devoted to theological issues; these texts are concerned primarily with interpretations of Jewish law, and anecdotes about the sages and their values. Only one chapter of the Mishnah deals with theological issues; it asserts that three kinds of people will have no share in "the world to come :" those who deny the resurrection of the dead , those who deny the divinity of the Torah , and Epicureans who deny divine supervision of human affairs. Another passage suggests a different set of core principles: normally, a Jew may violate any law to save a life, but in Sanhedrin 74a, a ruling orders Jews to accept martyrdom rather than violate the laws against idolatry , murder , or adultery.

Judah haNasi , however, said that Jews must "be meticulous in small religious duties as well as large ones, because you do not know what sort of reward is coming for any of the religious duties," suggesting that all laws are of equal importance. One belief central to the Pharisees which was shared by all Jews of the time is monotheism. This is evident in the practice of reciting the Shema , a prayer composed of select verses from the Torah Deuteronomy , at the Temple and in synagogues; the Shema begins with the verses, "Hear O Israel, the Lord is our God; the Lord is one. According to the Mishnah and Talmud, the men of the Great Assembly instituted the requirement that Jews both in Judea and in the diaspora pray three times a day morning, afternoon and evening , and include in their prayers a recitation of these passages in the morning " Shacharit " and evening " Ma'ariv " prayers.

Pharisaic wisdom was compiled in one book of the Mishna, Pirkei Avot. The Pharisaic attitude is perhaps best exemplified by a story about the sages Hillel the Elder and Shammai , who both lived in the latter half of the 1st century BCE. A gentile once challenged Shammai to teach him the wisdom of the Torah while he stood on one foot. Shammai drove him away. The same gentile approached Hillel and asked of him the same thing. Hillel chastised him gently by saying, "What is hateful to you, do not do to your fellow. That is the whole Torah; the rest is the explanation — now go and study. According to Josephus, whereas the Sadducees believed that people have total free will and the Essenes believed that all of a person's life is predestined , the Pharisees believed that people have free will but that God also has foreknowledge of human destiny.

This also accords with the statement in Pirkei Avot , "Rabbi Akiva said: All is foreseen, but freedom of choice is given". According to Josephus, Pharisees were further distinguished from the Sadducees in that Pharisees believed in the resurrection of the dead. Unlike the Sadducees, who are generally held to have rejected any existence after death, the sources vary on the beliefs of the Pharisees on the afterlife. According to the New Testament the Pharisees believed in the resurrection of the dead , but it does not specify whether this resurrection included the flesh or not. Fundamentally, the Pharisees continued a form of Judaism that extended beyond the Temple, applying Jewish law to mundane activities in order to sanctify the every-day world.

This was a more participatory or "democratic" form of Judaism, in which rituals were not monopolized by an inherited priesthood but rather could be performed by all adult Jews individually or collectively; whose leaders were not determined by birth but by scholarly achievement. Many, including some scholars, have characterized the Sadducees as a sect that interpreted the Torah literally, and the Pharisees as interpreting the Torah liberally.

R' Yitzhak Isaac Halevi suggests that this was not, in fact, a matter of religion. He claims that the complete rejection of Judaism would not have been tolerated under the Hasmonean rule and therefore Hellenists maintained that they were rejecting not Judaism but Rabbinic law. Thus, the Sadducees were in fact a political party not a religious sect. He suggests that two things fundamentally distinguished the Pharisaic from the Sadducean approach to the Torah. The Pharisees believed that the idea that all of the children of Israel were to be like priests was expressed elsewhere in the Torah , for example, when the Law itself was transferred from the sphere of the priesthood to every man in Israel. The standard view is that the Pharisees differed from Sadducees in the sense that they accepted the Oral Torah in addition to the Scripture.

Anthony J. Saldarini argues that this assumption has neither implicit nor explicit evidence. A critique of the ancient interpretations of the Bible are distant from what modern scholars consider literal. Saldarini states that the Oral Torah did not come about until the third century CE, although there was an unstated idea about it in existence. Every Jewish community in a way possessed their own version of the Oral Torah which governed their religious practices. Josephus stated that the Sadducees only followed literal interpretations of the Torah.

To Saldarini, this only means that the Sadducees followed their own way of Judaism and rejected the Pharisaic version of Judaism. The Oral Torah was to remain oral but was later given a written form. It did not refer to the Torah in a status as a commentary, rather had its own separate existence which allowed Pharisaic innovations. The sages of the Talmud believed that the Oral law was simultaneously revealed to Moses at Sinai, and the product of debates among rabbis. Thus, one may conceive of the "Oral Torah" not as a fixed text but as an ongoing process of analysis and argument in which God is actively involved; it was this ongoing process that was revealed at Sinai, and by participating in this ongoing process rabbis and their students are actively participating in God's ongoing act of revelation.

In doing so, they conform to the heavenly paradigm, the Torah believed to have been created by God "in his image," revealed at Sinai, and handed down to their own teachers If the masters and disciples obey the divine teaching of Moses, "our rabbi," then their society, the school, replicates on earth the heavenly academy, just as the disciple incarnates the heavenly model of Moses, "our rabbi. These beliefs today may seem as projections of rabbinical values onto heaven, but the rabbis believe that they themselves are projections of heavenly values onto earth.

The rabbis thus conceive that on earth they study Torah just as God, the angels, and Moses, "our rabbi," do in heaven. The heavenly schoolmen are even aware of Babylonian scholastic discussions, so they require a rabbi's information about an aspect of purity taboos. The commitment to relate religion to daily life through the law has led some notably, Saint Paul and Martin Luther to infer that the Pharisees were more legalistic than other sects in the Second Temple Era.

The authors of the Gospels present Jesus as speaking harshly against some Pharisees Josephus does claim that the Pharisees were the "strictest" observers of the law. This chain of tradition includes the interpretation of unclear statements in the Bible e. The Pharisees were also innovators in that they enacted specific laws as they saw necessary according to the needs of the time. These included prohibitions to prevent an infringement of a biblical prohibition e. Much of the legal system is based on "what the sages constructed via logical reasoning and from established practice".

These are known as Takanot. The Pharisees based their authority to innovate on the verses: " According to the law they instruct you and according to the judgment they say to you, you shall do; you shall not divert from the word they tell you, either right or left" Deuteronomy —11 see Encyclopedia Talmudit entry "Divrei Soferim". In an interesting twist, Abraham Geiger posits that the Sadducees were the more hidebound adherents to an ancient Halacha whereas the Pharisees were more willing to develop Halacha as the times required. Just as important as if not more important than any particular law was the value the rabbis placed on legal study and debate. The sages of the Talmud believed that when they taught the Oral Torah to their students, they were imitating Moses, who taught the law to the children of Israel.

Moreover, the rabbis believed that "the heavenly court studies Torah precisely as does the earthly one, even arguing about the same questions. One sign of the Pharisaic emphasis on debate and differences of opinion is that the Mishnah and Talmud mark different generations of scholars in terms of different pairs of contending schools. In the first century, for example, the two major Pharisaic schools were those of Hillel and Shammai. Followers of these two sages dominated scholarly debate over the following decades.

Although the Talmud records the arguments and positions of the school of Shammai, the teachings of the school of Hillel were ultimately taken as authoritative. Following the Jewish—Roman wars , revolutionaries like the Zealots had been crushed by the Romans, and had little credibility the last Zealots died at Masada in 73 CE. Similarly, the Sadducees, whose teachings were closely connected to the Temple, disappeared with the destruction of the Second Temple in 70 CE.

The Essenes too disappeared, perhaps because their teachings so diverged from the concerns of the times, perhaps because they were sacked by the Romans at Qumran. Of all the major Second Temple sects, only the Pharisees remained. Their vision of Jewish law as a means by which ordinary people could engage with the sacred in their daily lives was a position meaningful to the majority of Jews. Such teachings extended beyond ritual practices. According to the classic midrash in Avot D'Rabbi Nathan :. Yohanan ben Zakkai , a leading Pharisee, was appointed the first Patriarch the Hebrew word, Nasi, also means prince , or president , and he reestablished the Sanhedrin at Yavneh see the related Council of Jamnia under Pharisee control.

Instead of giving tithes to the priests and sacrificing offerings at the now-destroyed Temple, the rabbis instructed Jews to give charity. Moreover, they argued that all Jews should study in local synagogues , because Torah is "the inheritance of the congregation of Jacob" Deut. After the destruction of the First Temple, Jews believed that God would forgive them and enable them to rebuild the Temple — an event that actually occurred within three generations. After the destruction of the Second Temple, Jews wondered whether this would happen again. When the Emperor Hadrian threatened to rebuild Jerusalem as a pagan city dedicated to Jupiter , in , Aelia Capitolina , some of the leading sages of the Sanhedrin supported a rebellion led by Simon Bar Kosiba later known as Bar Kokhba , who established a short-lived independent state that was conquered by the Romans in With this defeat, Jews' hopes that the Temple would be rebuilt were crushed.

Nonetheless, belief in a Third Temple remains a cornerstone of Jewish belief. Romans did eventually reconstitute the Sanhedrin under the leadership of Judah haNasi who claimed to be a descendant of King David. They conferred the title of "Nasi" as hereditary, and Judah's sons served both as Patriarch and as heads of the Sanhedrin. According to historian Shaye Cohen, by the time three generations had passed after the destruction of the Second Temple, most Jews concluded that the Temple would not be rebuilt during their lives, nor in the foreseeable future.

Jews were now confronted with difficult and far-reaching questions:. None of these institutions describes itself as a "yeshiva". World War II and the Holocaust brought the yeshivot of Eastern and Central Europe to an end — however many scholars and rabbinic students who were able to escape the war, established yeshivot in a number of Western countries which had no or few yeshivot. Many students and faculty of the Mir Yeshiva were able to escape to Siberia, with the Yeshiva ultimately continuing to operate in Shanghai. From the midth century [18] the greatest number of yeshivot, and the most important of them, was centered in Israel and in the United States; but they were also found in many other Western countries, prominent examples are Gateshead Yeshiva in England one of the descendants of Novardok and the Yeshiva of Aix-les-Bains , France.

The Chabad movement was especially active in this direction, [18] establishing yeshivot also in France, North Africa, Australia, and South Africa; this "network of institutions" is known as Tomchei Temimim. As mentioned, many prominent contemporary yeshivot in the United States and Israel are continuations of European institutions, and often bear the same name. Notable more recent examples include the Ari Ashkenazi Synagogue since the mid s ; the Bet El yeshiva operating since ; and Etz Chaim Yeshiva since Various yeshivot were established in Israel in the early 20th century. The Mir Yeshiva in Jerusalem — today the largest Yeshiva in the world — was established in , by Rabbi Eliezer Yehuda Finkel who had traveled to Palestine to obtain visas for his students.

Porat Yosef, the leading Sephardi Yeshiva, was founded in ; its predecessor, Yeshivat Ohel Moed was founded in From the s and onward, especially following immigration of the Arabic Jewish communities, Sephardi leaders, such as Ovadia Yosef and Ben-Zion Meir Hai Uziel , established various yeshivot to facilitate Torah education for Sephardi and Mizrahi Jews and alternative to Lithuanian yeshivot. Boys and girls here attend separate schools, and proceed to higher Torah study, in a yeshiva or seminary, respectively, starting anywhere between the ages of 13 and 18; see Chinuch Atzmai and Bais Yaakov.

A significant proportion of young men then remain in yeshiva until their marriage; thereafter many continue their Torah studies in a kollel. In , there were 80, in full-time learning. Some Kollels similarly focus on halacha in total, others specifically on those topics required for Semikha Rabbinic ordination or Dayanut qualification as a Rabbinic Judge. The certification in question is often conferred by the Rosh Yeshiva.

Many in the Religious Zionist community today attend a Hesder yeshiva discussed below during their national service ; these offer a kollel for Rabbinical students. Students generally prepare for the Semikha test of the Chief Rabbinate of Israel ; until his recent passing commonly for that of the posek R. Zalman Nechemia Goldberg. Women correspondingly study in a Midrasha. High school students study at Mamlachti dati schools, often associated with Bnei Akiva. Bar Ilan University allows students to combine Yeshiva studies with university study; Jerusalem College of Technology similarly, which also offers a Haredi track; there are several colleges of education associated with Hesder and the Midrashot these often offer specializations in Tanakh and Machshavah — see below.

See Religious Zionism Educational institutions. It was established in the wake of the immigration of Central and Eastern European Jews s — Many Hasidic dynasties have their main Yeshivot in America, typically established in the s; the Central Lubavitcher Yeshiva has over students. The postwar establishment of Ashkenazi yeshivot and kollelim parallels that in Israel; as does the educational pattern in the American Haredi community , although more obtain a secular education at the college level see College credit below.

Aaron Kotler on the "rigid Lithuanian model" that demanded full-time study; [18] it now offers a Bachelor of Talmudic Law degree which allows students to go on to graduate school. Many Hasidic sects have their own yeshivas - see especially Satmar and Bobov - while Chabad, as mentioned, operates its Tomchei Temimim nationwide. Regarding junior and high school - of which there are over combined - see Torah Umesorah , Mesivta , and Bais Yaakov.

Modern Orthodox typically spend a year, often two, post-high school in a yeshiva sometimes Hesder or Midrasha in Israel. Many thereafter, or instead, attend Yeshiva University , undertaking a dual curriculum, combining academic education with Torah study; [21] see Torah Umadda and S. Daniel Abraham Israel Program. Communities will often host a Torah MiTzion kollel, where Hesder graduates learn and teach, generally for one year. The US educational pattern is to be found around the Jewish world, with regional differences; see Category:Orthodox yeshivas in Europe and Category:Orthodox yeshivas by country.

This schedule is generally maintained Sunday through Thursday. On Thursday nights, there may be an extra long night seder, known as mishmar sometimes lasting beyond am, and in some yeshivot even until the following sunrise. On Fridays, there is usually at least one seder in the morning, with unstructured learning schedules for the afternoon. Saturdays have a special Shabbat schedule which includes some sedarim but usually no shiur. Yeshiva study is differentiated from, for example university study, as regards several structural features — curriculum aside.

The year is structured into " zmanim "; the day is structured into " seders ". This study is in a common venue called the bet midrash Yiddish , "zal" i. The institution is headed by its Rosh Yeshiva , while other senior Rabbis are referred to as "Ram" Rosh Mesivta , Reish Metivta ; the Mashgiach assumes responsibility for students' spiritual development Mashpia , in Hasidic Yeshivot.

A Kollel is headed by its Rosh Kollel , even when it is part of a Yeshiva. The Rabbi responsible for the Talmud shiur is known as a Maggid Shiur. Students are known as talmidim , sing. Rav Muvhak is sometimes used in reference to one's primary teacher; correspondingly, Talmid Muvhak may refer to a primary, or outstanding, student. In most yeshivot, the year is divided into three periods terms called zmanim lit.

Elul zman starts from the beginning of the Hebrew month of Elul and extends until the end of Yom Kippur. The six-weeks-long semester is the shortest yet most intense session, as it comes before the High Holidays of Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur. Winter zman starts after Sukkot and lasts until about two weeks before Passover , a duration of five months six in a Jewish leap year. Yeshiva students prepare for and review the shiur lecture with their chavruta during a study session known as a seder. Chavruta-style learning tends to be loud and animated, as the study partners read the Talmudic text and the commentaries aloud to each other, and then analyze, question, debate, and even argue their points of view to arrive at an understanding of the text.

In the heat of discussion, they may even wave their hands, pound the table, or shout at each other. Post-high schools for women are generally called "seminary", or midrasha in Israel, [33] and not yeshiva. Although there are exceptions such as Prospect Park Yeshiva. These institutions provide girls with a Torah education, using a curriculum that skews more toward practical halakha Jewish law and the study of Tanakh , rather than Talmud.

The curriculum at Religious Zionist and Modern Orthodox midrashot , however, often includes some study of Talmud: often Mishnah, sometimes Gemara ; in further distinction, curricula generally entail Chavruta-based study of the texts of Jewish philosophy, and likewise Tanakh is studied with commentaries. See Midrasha Curriculum for further discussion. Classes in most Lithuanian and Hasidic yeshivot throughout the world are taught in Yiddish ; Kol Torah , est in Jerusalem and headed by Shlomo Zalman Auerbach for over 40 years, was the first mainstream Haredi yeshiva to teach in Hebrew, as opposed to Yiddish.

Sephardi , Modern Orthodox, Zionist , and baal teshuvah yeshivot use Modern Hebrew or the local language. Students learn with each other in whatever language they are most proficient, with Hasidic students usually learning in Yiddish, Israeli Lithuanian students in Hebrew, and American Lithuanian students in English. Although often not encouraged, some yeshivas permit students to attend college on a limited basis.

This concession is facilitated by arrangements for the student to receive credit towards a college degree. These degrees are nationally accredited by the Association of Advanced Rabbinical and Talmudic Schools , and may then grant access to graduate programs such as law school. Torah study at an Orthodox yeshiva comprises the study of rabbinic literature , principally the Talmud, along with the study of halacha Jewish law ; Musar and Hasidic philosophy are often studied also. Non-Orthodox institutions offer a synthesis of traditional and critical methods, allowing Jewish texts and tradition to encounter social change and modern scholarship. The curriculum is thus also focused on classical Jewish subjects - Talmud, Tanakh, Midrash, halacha , and Philosophy - but differs from Orthodox yeshivot in that the subject-weights are more even, and the approach entails an openness to modern scholarship ; the curriculum also emphasizes "the other functions of a modern rabbi such as preaching, counseling, and pastoral work".

Conservative Yeshivot occupy a position midway, [37] in that their training places significantly more emphasis on Halakha and Talmud than other non-Orthodox programs; see Conservative halakha. In the typical Orthodox yeshiva, the main emphasis is on Talmud study and analysis, or Gemara. Generally, two parallel Talmud streams are covered during a zman trimester. The first is iyyun in-depth study; variants described below , often confined to selected legally focused tractates with an emphasis on analytical skills and close reference to the classical commentators; [27] the second, beki'ut , seeks to cover ground more speedily in order to build general knowledge of the Talmud.

In the yeshiva system of Talmudic study, the undergraduate yeshivot focus on eight mesechtohs tractates that deal with civil jurisprudence Nezikin ; through them, the student can best master the proper technique of Talmudic analysis , and [38] the halakhic application of Talmudic principles. With these mastered, the student is ready to go on to other areas of the Talmud [11] see, for example, Yeshivas Ner Yisroel Cycle of Masechtos. Tractates Berachot , Sukkah , Pesachim and Shabbat are often included. Works initially studied to clarify the Talmudic text are the commentary by Rashi , and Tosafot , a parallel analysis and running critique.

At more advanced levels, additional mefarshim commentators are studied: other rishonim , from the 11th to 14th centuries, as well as acharonim , from later generations. There are two main schools of rishonim , from France and from Spain, who will hold different interpretations and understandings of the Talmud. At these levels, students link the Talmudic discussion to codified law — particularly Mishneh Torah i. As the level of the shiur progresses, so the student must integrate more of these commentaries into their analysis of the sugya loosely, Talmudic "unit of analysis" , and understand their various implications re practical-halakha.

This iyyun will generally take one the following forms each a "derech ha-limud" or "way of learning"; see the Hebrew category "Approaches to Learning Talmud" :. The Rosh Yeshiva typically gives the most senior daily Talmud-shiur. It is especially here that the student consolidates the yeshiva's approach to iyyun , i. The Rosh Yeshiva also delivers the weekly shiur klali comprehensive lecture , which sums up the week's learning; this is attended by all levels, and will often have its own marei mekomot. Typically, boys begin their study of Talmud in middle school, initially studying Mishnah , the component of Talmud where the underlying "cases" are presented. At this stage, they have completed their survey of Chumash , with these cases expanding on the legal precepts there; see below.

In early high school, gemara , the analytic component, is introduced; by late high school some are able to work with Tosafot. Some systems more closely follow Pirkei Avot ch 5, 21 as a guideline; where Mishna-study begins at age 10, and Gemara at See Zilberman Method for further discussion. Generally, a period is devoted to the study of practical halakha " Halakha LeMaaseh ". The text most commonly studied in Ashkenazi yeshivot is the Mishnah Berurah , a commentary on the Shulchan Aruch originally published between and Beginning students are encouraged to also work through the Kitzur Shulchan Aruch , so as to survey all areas of applicable halacha also often true outside of Chabad. Other students, similarly, additionally review the Mishneh Torah through its daily study cycle this is often outside of any seder , here including halachot relating to, for example, the Temple.

Students in Semikha Rabbinic ordination programs, and often those in kollel , devote the largest portion of their schedule to halakha. The focus is on in-depth, source-based [26] study of those areas where community Rabbis will typically be asked "shaylas" , i. This study encompasses a detailed analysis of the halakha in the Arba'ah Turim and Beit Yosef , through its final presentation in the Shulchan Aruch , with its major commentaries especially " Shakh " and " Taz " , complemented by a survey of key She'elot u-Teshuvot responsa , recent and historical.

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