✎✎✎ Similarities Between Sparta And Athens Democracy

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Similarities Between Sparta And Athens Democracy

From the late 15th century, European navigators found the way to Asia, the Americas see voyages of Columbus and Oceania. There are still some goods Similarities Between Sparta And Athens Democracy need handling at customs, or special permits, Similarities Between Sparta And Athens Democracy. We will also explore the expansion of Islam, the origins Similarities Between Sparta And Athens Democracy effects of European contact, and Early Head Start Program trans-Atlantic slave trade. The logic of 'Himmler wants a nation, let's give him one' is very useful Similarities Between Sparta And Athens Democracy preventing the Similarities Between Sparta And Athens Democracy war. HMRT The second quarter Similarities Between Sparta And Athens Democracy the colonial period i.

15. Athenian Democracy

Plato lived in an Athens that to his chagrin was in danger of losing its cultural and military preeminence, and was succumbing to disintegrating influences from abroad and from within. He had lived through the terrible time of the Peloponnesian War with Sparta, and the Thirty Tyrants, and therefore had intimate experience of the horrors of anarchy. In short, he saw an older, supposedly better, world crumbling around him, and he wanted to understand what had gone wrong and how it could be fixed.

The result was that he emphasized order and homogeneity, and upheld the claims of the state over the claims of the individual, while thinking that in a just state full of just individuals, the laws of the former would harmonize with the desires of the latter. For Plato, justice was to be sought in the old, in the static — the assimilation of the individual into the community — not in the new or the dynamic. While Plato did value freedom, he did so much less than we moderns do, as is evidenced in his not emphasizing it in his discussions of justice. In a particular case, such as that of a murder, Plato might judge as we do largely because we seem to have intuitive ideas of how humans ought to be treated.

However, both his explicit definitions of justice and the deeper intuitions that inspire his definitions differ from ours. But in this last case our respective judgments are based on different reasons. Plato, on the other hand, would say that the tyrant is unjust insofar as his acts promote anarchy and prevent his subjects from seeking the Good and living in harmony with themselves and the community.

The tyrant upsets the natural order of things. Another illustration of the difference in our outlooks is in our conceptions of the ideal or just person. According to Plato, the ideal person is a philosopher, since his wisdom means his soul is in complete harmony with itself. He has knowledge of himself and society; he knows what it is to be virtuous; he has a certain amount of equanimity, and he never loses control over himself.

I have elaborated on neither, merely sketching them. The most defensible notion of justice, socially or individually, would be a combination of the two, selecting the strengths from each and reconciling them. It would emphasize both the importance of community and the importance of the individual, while succumbing neither to the potential totalitarianism of the Republic , nor to the excessive individualism of modern culture. The state is the soul writ large, so to speak. For example, the divisions of the state correspond to divisions of the soul. But since the soul is difficult to analyze, in the dialogue Socrates says that he will first speculate on the state, and then rely on his speculations to illuminate the nature of justice in the individual.

Superficially, it appears that the lengthy discussion of the state is therefore primarily an interpretative device. Clearly, though, it is more than that. Plato may not have believed that his utopia would work in practice, or even that it would be desirable to institute some of his more radical suggestions, but he certainly attributed some value to his discussion independent of its illustrative function. He was dissatisfied with the city-states of his day, and was proposing an alternative.

The guardians , who are philosophers, govern the city; the auxiliaries are soldiers who defend it; and the lowest class comprises the producers farmers, artisans, etc. The guardians and auxiliaries have the same education, which begins with music and literature and ends with gymnastics. The arts are censored for educational purposes: for example, any poetic writings which attribute ignoble doings to the gods cannot be taught.

Only poetry which nourishes the budding virtues of the pupils can be part of the curriculum. Similarly, musical modes which sound sorrowful, soft, or feminine, are banished from the education of the guardians. This apparently leaves only the Dorian and Phrygian modes, of which. Socrates approves because they incite the listener to courage, temperance, and harmonious living. Certain instruments, such as the flute, are also forbidden from the ideal city-state, as are certain poetic meters, since Socrates associates them with vice.

The laws which Socrates suggests are repressive. People are allowed to have only one occupation — namely that for which they are best suited by nature. Evidently there is no division between the public and the private. Only what is conducive to temperate living is encouraged, and excess and vice of any kind are strongly discouraged. Neither wealth nor poverty is permitted, as each leads to vice. He argues via Socrates that the traditional form of the family should be done away with. Men should have women and children in common, such that no man knows who his children are or has excessive love for one woman in particular.

Most ships are very large and on a par with Caribbean cruise liners both in size and service. It sails from Denmark , which also has numerous lines to Norway and Sweden. There are also numerous services to Denmark, the Benelux and even across the Biscay to Spain. There are many ferry routes serving the United Kingdom and Ireland, not just between Great Britain and Ireland, but also around the numerous other islands of the archipelago, most extensively in the Western and Northern Isles of Scotland.

The Channel Islands are also all connected to one another and to France and England by high-speed catamaran. The hovercraft has been withdrawn from Cross-Channel service due to competition from the Channel Tunnel, but there is still a hovercraft service from mainland Britain to the Isle of Wight. In the Mediterranean Sea a large number of ferries and cruise ships operate between Spain , Italy and southern France , including Corsica , Sardinia and the Balearics. And on the Italian peninsula's east coast, ferries ply across the Adriatic sea to Albania , Croatia , Montenegro and Greece , with Bari as one major terminal of many.

And finally the Black Sea has several ferries sailing across its waters, although service can be fairly sketchy at times. Poti , Istanbul and Sevastopol are the main ports. Nearly all the Black Sea ports have a ferry going somewhere, but rarely anywhere logical — i. There are various ferries on the larger lakes and for crossing rivers. There are several regularly running cruise-lines on the larger rivers like the Rhine , Danube and the Volga.

Boating excursions within Europe, particularly along the scenic rivers and between many of the islands in the Mediterranean, are an excellent way to combine travel between locations with an adventure along the way. Accommodations range from very basic to extremely luxurious depending upon the company and class of travel selected. Another famous line is the Hurtigruten cruise-ferries which sails all along Norway 's amazing coastline and fjords.

Rentals are around two to three times more expensive than in North America. Western Europe for the most part has good road conditions and an extensive and well developed highway network, whereas Eastern Europe is still working hard on the large backlog left from communist days. Arguably some former eastern bloc countries are going overboard with this, neglecting rail and bus networks in the process of being caught in auto euphoria.

Avoid large cities if you are not used to driving in Europe. Old towns are impossible or difficult to go through by car. Generally speaking, the more urban focused your itinerary and the richer the countries you're headed to, the more miserable you'll be driving compared to taking trains, urban rail and the occasional bus. Winter driving is an issue in northern Europe and the high mountains, and occasionally in the south. Traffic is right-handed except in Britain and Ireland , Malta , and Cyprus. If you plan to rent a car to drive around Europe, it often makes sense to check the rates in different countries rather than just hire a car in the country of arrival. The price differences can be substantial for longer rentals, to the extent that it can make sense to adjust your travel plans accordingly, e.

Compared to North America, you should be prepared for smaller, more efficient cars, and most of them have manual transmission, so don't expect an automatic without requesting one when placing your order and often paying extra. Some rental agencies also have stipulations in their contracts, prohibiting the rental of a car in one country and taking it to some others. It is for example common that a car rented in Germany may not be taken to Poland due to concerns of theft. This is less common the other way round, so if you are planning on visiting both countries by rental car, it might be easier and cheaper to rent a car in Poland and drive to Germany with it. Cycling conditions vary greatly between different countries, between city centres, suburbs and countryside, and between different cities in any one country, so see our individual destination articles.

In general terms, Belgium, the Netherlands, and Denmark are better destinations for cyclists than, say, Poland. The European cycle route network or EuroVelo consists of 15 routes linking virtually every country on the continent. Some of these routes are not finished, but plans are to have 60, km of bike lanes; as of , around 70, km are in place. Bike share systems are becoming increasingly common, especially in countries like France or Germany. One of the biggest companies in this emerging business is Nextbike , which mostly honour memberships in one city for reduced rates in another.

Other cities like Paris have city run systems which only cover one place, but there are often special discount rates for tourists. Hitchhiking is a common way of travelling in some parts of Europe, especially in former eastern bloc countries. It can be a pleasant way to meet lots of people, and to travel without spending too many euros. In the more eastern countries, you may run into language problems while hitchhiking, especially if you speak only English. It is not advisable to hitchhike in former Yugoslavia, for example between Croatia and Serbia, because you could run into big problems with nationalists. Between Croatia and Slovenia it's usually not a problem.

In Moldova and Ukraine, it's better to take a train or bus. In western Europe, especially in the Netherlands and Germany, it can be weary and tedious to hitch-hike. Another method is hitchhiking through pre-arranged ride sharing. Although this is not free, the price is usually much lower than even the cheapest bus or train-fare. The all too common concept of trying to "do Europe" is pretty unrealistic, and will most likely, if not ruin your vacation, then at least make it less enjoyable. While you can cross Europe on train in a weekend and fly across it in a few hours, it has more historical sites than any other continent, with more than World Heritage Sites on the continent and thousands of other sites worth seeing. Instead of running a mad dash through Europe in an attempt to get the ritual photos of you in front of the Colosseum, the Eiffel Tower, Big Ben etc.

There are likely to be some amazing, world class sights and attractions that you haven't even thought about, somewhere in between two given cities, and finding those will — in all likelihood — be infinitely more rewarding than following the beaten down post card route. Each of the larger cities can entertain a visitor for more than a week, and Europe is certainly worth more than one visit. The classic Grand Tour took longer by necessity than many modern "Eurotrips", but you can still learn from the first "tourists". Europe is full of deserted archaeological sites , as well as living old towns.

The Roman Empire left ruins across the continent. Rome itself has the magnificent Colosseum , Pantheon and the Roman Forum. Though notably less, France, southern and western Germany and England also have some Roman sites, as have most other regions that were once part of the Roman Empire. Constantinople's now Istanbul 's most famous landmark, Hagia Sofia , is a testament to the continuity from the Byzantine Empire to the Ottomans. After almost a millennium of being the largest Eastern Orthodox Christian cathedral in the world, it was converted in into one of the world's most impressive mosques.

The Ottoman Empire left significant influence in Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean, with many buildings and cultures deriving important concepts from them. The city-states and smaller states of the Middle Ages, especially in Italy, the Netherlands and Germany, showed their wealth through churches and council buildings. Most present or historical capital cities have some of their grandiose palaces, theatres or opera houses open to the public. One main attraction is European art , including modern and contemporary art. Europe has dozens of market towns and almost just about every other town holds its rights to host markets.

While Europe is shaped by mankind, arguably more than any other continent, it also contains large areas of wilderness; especially in the north and east. Many mountain ranges are known for their beauty, such as the Alps , the Caucasus , and the Carpathian Mountains. Some other wonders of nature are the fjords of Norway , and the Icelandic Hot Springs. There are more than national parks on the continent. Europe is considered the spiritual home of classical music and opera, and the various European capitals are home to some amazing 'old world' opera houses, where the hundreds of years of history often enhances the experience into something otherworldly. However if opera singers give you headache, then fear not, since Europe has more modern music festivals than you could possibly ever visit.

Alternatively, the revival Woodstock festival in Poland , while it doesn't boast the star-studded line-up of some commercial festivals, is great for those who want to do it on the cheap there is no ticket to buy and attracted crowds of around , Furthermore, there is the "Donauinselfest" which takes place every year in Vienna, and is said to be Europe's biggest free open-air event. While Europe is known for its opera houses, the London West End is also home to many world leading productions of musical theatre.

Perhaps no other field has seen stronger European integration than sport. Most professional sports have Europe-wide leagues in place, and nearly every sport has a bi-annual European Championship. Europe is home to some fantastic ski resorts; the Alps are home of some of the best ski resorts in the world, and there are more here than anywhere else.

Austria and Switzerland contain hundreds of resorts alone. The largest area is Les Portes du Soleil , made up of 13 linked ski resorts in Switzerland and France, boasting over km of marked runs. Scotland is home of 5 ski resorts, Nevis Range has the highest vertical drop at metres, while Glenshee is the largest. A surprising option is Sierra Nevada in Spain , fairly large, just a couple of hours' drive from the Mediterranean coast, and with a season often running into May - you can ski in the morning, and chill on the beach in the afternoon.

To the north the Pyrenees shared with France and Andorra also offers excellent skiing at up to 2,m 8, ft altitude, Domaine Tourmalet is the largest resort in the area with over km of pistes. Eastern Europe is seeing increasing popularity since prices are much lower than elsewhere on the continent. The downside is that facilities are not as expansive or modern as elsewhere in Europe, but things are rapidly improving. The Carpathian mountains, with the highest runs at almost 2,m ft , is another popular area; Poiana Brasov Romania, 20 km, 11 lifts Zakopane Poland, 30 km, 20 lifts and Jasna Slovakia, 29 km, 24 lifts are the largest and most popular areas in the respective countries.

Despite being in the middle of the Mediterranean, Cyprus has a growing ski tourism in the Troodos Mountains. EuroVelo cycling routes is a development of many different bike routes throughout the continent, that cater for nearly all desires and levels of difficulties. In all of the different countries of the continent, parts of these routes exists. Some are already developed, some are only "under construction". Much of the continent's countryside is safe and accessible to hikers and climbers. The rich diversity and cultural heritage, the presence of centuries-old artisan traditions and fine industries, as well as a number of the world's most famous brands in all sorts of luxury and premium goods make Europe a shopper's paradise.

There are regional specialities to be bought from every corner of the continent, and the main shopping streets and department stores in many a European metropolis are shopping meccas drawing eager buyers from all over the globe. In terms of less glamorous purchases, Europe generally poses little problems. Retail is well-developed in most countries, and you should not have trouble finding stores offering basic groceries and other first-need items almost anywhere but the most remote, uninhabited areas.

Issues such as store opening hours or credit card acceptance, however, vary greatly between countries, as does the probability of the salespeople speaking any foreign languages. Europe is known for its fashion, and designer clothes. Also luxury watches and high end jewellery are famous in Europe. One euro equals cents; sometimes referred to as 'euro cents' to differentiate them from their U. Those countries which have replaced their own national currencies are commonly called the Eurozone.

Euros are sometimes accepted in European countries outside the Eurozone, but not universally, and at shops and restaurants the exchange rate may not be in your favour. Many hotels outside of the Eurozone also price and accept payment in euros. Throughout Europe, automatic teller machines are readily available. They will accept various European bank cards as well as credit cards. Although a large number of cash machines may offer free cash withdrawals, some operators will charge their own fees to do so — usually a percentage of the amount withdrawn, with a fixed minimum amount. This is on top of the fees your card issuer already imposes. Read the labels and notices on the machine before using them. Usually the machine will state the fee for the withdrawal you are about to make and ask you to confirm it.

European ATMs do not usually have letters on the keypad. PINs longer than 4 digits are generally no longer a problem. Credit and debit card usage varies across Europe. In the British Isles and Nordic countries, cards are often used even for petty transactions, whereas in the likes of Italy, you may be out of luck in trying to use it to buy stamps. Although cards may be accepted widely, it is always advisable to have cash at hand, both as a backup if there are problems and because there still are many points of sale that will not accept cards at all, for example tobacco shops and stalls at Christmas markets.

Cash may also be advised over cards if your card issuer charges an exorbitant foreign exchange fee, especially a fixed charge for small transactions; check the fine print before you plan to use your card. VISA and Mastercard are the most widely accepted. American Express and Diners Club acceptance is quite limited in some countries, and some retailers consciously opt out from accepting them due to higher fees they would incur. Alternatively, contactless payments including Apple Pay and Android Pay for relatively smaller transactions are also becoming more widespread. Procedures for handling payments with unfamiliar card types often involve checking the card against user IDs, so do not be surprised or offended if asked for one and do have a document with a photo handy, preferably a passport, as a driver's license is often not deemed valid for such purposes.

You may be surprised to find out that your card inexplicably does not work at some points of sale in some locations, despite being otherwise fine. This is especially true with older-style credit cards without a chip, which may simply not get accepted. Most European countries have moved to a chip and PIN system, where credit cards all have a chip built in and you have to punch in your PIN code instead of signing a receipt. Even if your card already has a chip, it might not be accepted where a PIN is needed to move forward with the transaction. Moreover, the card acceptance signs displayed may not mean what you may expect them to, as "fine print" may deem your particular type of VISA or Mastercard is not acceptable e.

In a few cases when using a debit or credit card, you may be offered an option to be charged in your home currency directly — at a rate set by the merchant, which may be bad. Insist on using the currency of the country you are performing the transaction in e. See Money Dynamic currency conversion. With 50 intricately linked countries and 28 currencies squeezed into an area roughly the size of Canada or China, the planet's largest diaspora due to the continent's colonial ties with virtually the entire world, and more tourism arrivals than anywhere else, currency exchange is a fact of life in Europe, and the market is probably better established than anywhere else in the world, and readily available nearly everywhere.

Banks will, with some exceptions, exchange all European currencies, and within the European Union banks will accept nearly any currency that is legally traded abroad. Specialised currency exchange companies are also widespread, especially in major tourist destinations, and are often slightly cheaper than banks. However, with ATMs accepting all major credit and debit cards available everywhere, many visitors simply withdraw money electronically to get as close to the real exchange rate as possible though card issuers and banks may add their own withdrawal and foreign exchange fees. Be careful when you see 'commission-free', 'zero commission' or 'no commission', the rate seen on the board may include additional fees which means a worse rate.

Tipping practices vary between countries in Europe. In most countries, tipping is not required, and displayed prices are required to include all service fees and taxes. Europe is generally an expensive continent; especially the Nordic countries, Switzerland, large cities, and tourist areas. In general, prices are higher in the northwest, and lower in the southeast. For souvenirs, prices will often be less at smaller stalls than in larger stores. When dining, many items that you might not expect to be charged for e. However, some countries are generally very inexpensive compared to American or Western European standards. In the EU, most goods and services are required to include value added tax VAT in their published prices, especially the large print.

Just request a voucher from the store and show it to customs at your exit point. To be safe, look out for a VAT refund sticker at the door or window of the store. VAT commonly varies by country and sometimes by class of good within a country with "basic needs" like food and some goods taxed lower than "luxury" goods, but the systems vary from country to country and prices are often more affected by other factors than VAT.

Unlike the US, there is no local sales tax, though many municipalities charge a tourism tax for accommodations, that naturally varies by place and sometimes by season or type of accommodation. European cuisines are extremely varied. There's a world of difference between the historically available produce of the cold north and the Mediterranean south of Europe and, of course, the development of national cuisines depended highly on the available goods. Cuisines also often vary significantly between different parts of the same country. However, most European cuisines share a few characteristics and many are held in high regard worldwide, despite having relatively short traditions compared to, for example, those of China.

Perhaps the most celebrated of European cuisines is the French one, which has had a strong influence on the modern development of fine dining in other countries. Italian cuisine is equally well-known and loved, and a range of dishes from other countries have gained popularity throughout the continent and the world. Meat plays an important role in most European cuisines. Where Asian cooking has a preference for bite-size bits, many European dishes include full serving pieces. Steaks of various meats are popular all over the continent, as are accompanying sauces of all kinds. Potatoes became a major source of starch after the voyages of Columbus sparked trade with the Americas, besides bread, pasta, pastries and some forms of dumplings.

Traditional ingredients depend on the local climate. As a general rule, fruits, vegetables and spices become more common and diverse the further south you go. The dining scenes in European cities have been heavily influenced by food from the rest of the world. Europeans gladly mix their regional food traditions with those of other parts of Europe, Asia and the Americas, leaving both locals and visitors with a wide array of options in most of the larger cities. Due to high levels of immigration from the former colonial empires, cuisines from Asia, Africa and the Americas are well-represented in the major cities of their respective former colonial metropoles.

Although service levels vary between countries, in general you will not get the same level of attentiveness in European restaurants that you will at those in the United States. This is not out of a desire to be rude, but rather due to the expectation for waiters to be as professional and unintrusive as possible. Tipping varies between countries and establishments, but a ten percent tip can be perfectly reasonable in many places. You'll almost never have your bill inflated by thirty percent of "tax and tip", and in many countries tipping is completely optional. Most Europeans eat with the fork in their left hand, and the knife in their right hand. The American custom to grab the fork in the right hand is accepted, but will make a guest stand out as a foreigner.

In most of Europe, it is rude to rest your elbows on the dining table; be sure to only rest your wrist. In many places, putting your hands in your lap at the dining table is also rude. You shouldn't make loud noises at the dining table, such as slurping, and you should be mindful of your volume when talking. The common practice of taking your leftovers home with you in the United States is generally uncommon in Europe, and might be met with some confusion at posher establishments. At more upmarket establishments, with several glasses and sets of utensils, always remember to work your way inwards with regard to the utensils set up in front of you. For instance, the outermost wine glass is typically for white wine, which is usually drunk with the starter usually a fish dish , while the middle glass is for red wine, which is usually drunk with the main course usually a red meat dish , while the innermost wine glass is typically for dessert wine.

When finished with a dish, lay your knife and fork at "25 past five" and the utensils and the plate will be taken away. For as long as they are left in 20 to four, you are signalling that you haven't finished, possibly confusing the waiter. Watch other diners if in doubt. For amateurs of fine dining, French cuisine contains the original versions of globally acclaimed and revered delicacies, as well as local specialities, which include escargot, frog legs and a variety of seafood. Italian cuisine holds a wealth of culinary delights, some of which made their way worldwide, such as pizza or various kinds of pasta, but they often evolved into something quite different than one can experience on location. Spanish and Portuguese cuisine are gaining in popularity both across Europe and on a global scale.

To a large extent based on seafood, which is no wonder given their long Mediterranean and Atlantic coastlines and maritime traditions, they celebrate meals as much as the Italians do, and elevate small snacks, or tapas , to an art. The Catalonia region in particular is home to an exceptionally high concentration of celebrity chefs and their fine dining restaurants. Balkan cuisines form a continuum with Greece , Cyprus , Turkey and the Caucasus where more and more "eastern" flavours are added, with fresh curd cheeses , tomatoes and roasted meat in many forms.

Given the Islamic influences, you will find much less pork and more beef, lamb and chicken there. See also Middle Eastern cuisine. Everywhere along the Mediterranean coast you will find an abundance of olive oil, which is a tasty and healthy alternative to the many other fats used all over the world. This may be the key to the secret of eating so well and so much while remaining trim and living long, which is the case in many locations across the Mediterranean. Central European cuisines are simple and hearty, including large portions of meat, especially pork, sausages, potatoes, cabbage, sour cream and desserts, with German cuisine as a representative example. This is certainly not the place to look for tips on eating less and getting thinner, but one for sure won't be leaving hungry.

Moreover, while Switzerland, Austria and many places in Germany have prices matching their high standard of living, with the new EU members it is still possible to fill up very inexpensively compared to the rest of Europe. Central European cakes and chocolate are famous. Nordic cuisine is characterised by dishes of seafood , game, berries, and bread of different cereals. While simplicity is always a permeating value, do not be fooled by IKEA's tasty yet mundane offerings, as Nordic food has many more refined flavours. Modern Scandinavian or New Nordic cuisine has also emerged in the 21st century, integrating traditional Nordic flavours with international influences, and has been making waves throughout the fine dining world. Russian cuisine has much in common with the cuisines of Ukraine , Belarus , the Baltic States , Central Europe, the Caucasus and the Nordics, together with unique local delicacies.

As their cuisines are less known globally, you can find many hidden gems and surprises, from the variety of soups and dumplings to the light and sweet desserts. It has in particular been strongly influenced by Georgian cuisine. This course includes material from a variety of different contexts for modern Jewish life, but places particular emphasis on American Jewish history and culture. The course may also be taken as an independent elective. LACS Taking these courses in sequence is not required. This sequence is offered every year. This course introduces the history and cultures of Latin America e. Introduction to Latin American Civilization I.

Autumn Quarter examines the origins of civilizations in Latin America with a focus on the political, social, and cultural features of the major pre-Columbian civilizations of the Maya, Inca, and Aztec. The quarter concludes with an analysis of the Spanish and Portuguese conquest, and the construction of colonial societies in Latin America. The courses in this sequence may be taken in any order. Winter Quarter addresses the evolution of colonial societies, the wars of independence, and the emergence of Latin American nation-states in the changing international context of the nineteenth century.

Spring Quarter focuses on the twentieth century, with special emphasis on the challenges of economic, political, and social development in the region. Instructor s : D. This two-quarter sequence explores musical works of broad cultural significance in Western civilization. We study pieces not only from the standpoint of musical style but also through the lenses of politics, intellectual history, economics, gender, cultural studies, and so on. Readings are taken both from our music textbook and from the writings of a number of figures such as St. Benedict of Nursia and Martin Luther. In addition to lectures, students discuss important issues in the readings and participate in music listening exercises in smaller sections. MUSI This course, part of the Social Sciences Civ core, looks at musics in different moments of Euro-American history and the social contexts in which they originated, with some comparative views on other world traditions.

It aims to give students a better understanding of the social contexts of European music over this period; aids for the basic sound structures of pieces from these different moments; and convincing writing in response to prompts based on source readings or music pieces. Our first quarter MUS etc. Instructor s : R. Students must confirm enrollment by attending one of the first two sessions of class. This two-quarter sequence meets the general education requirement in civilization studies; it does not meet the general education requirement in the arts.

Our second quarter MUS etc. Terms Offered: Winter Note s : Prior music course or ability to read music not required. NEHC This sequence meets the general education requirement for civilization studies. This course surveys the political, social, and economic history of ancient Egypt from pre-dynastic times ca. This course offers an overview of the history of Mesopotamia from its origins down to the Achaemenid and Hellenistic periods, when Mesopotamia became part of larger empires.

Weeks 1 to 5, preceding mid-term exam, cover the periods ranging from the late Chalcolithic down to the end of the Middle Bronze age late fifth to mid-second millennia BCE. This course introduces students to the history of ancient Anatolia and its neighbors from the first historical texts around BCE, with a short detour through prehistory and the appearance of Proto-Indo-European culture, to the arrival of Alexander the Great. We will focus on the information provided by inscriptions - especially political and socioeconomic history - as well as the relevant archaeological and art historical records. No prior knowledge of Anatolian or Near Eastern history is required.

This sequence surveys the thought and literature of the Near East. Each course in the sequence focuses on a particular culture or civilization. Texts in English. This course gives an overview of the richness of Mesopotamian Literature modern Iraq written in the 3rd-1st millennium BC. We will read myths and epics written on clay tablets in the Sumerian and Akkadian language in English translation and discuss content and style, but also the religious, cultural and historic implications.

Particular focus will be on the development of stories over time, the historical context of the literature and mythological figures. The texts treated cover not only the famous Epic of Gilgamesh, but also various legends of Sumerian and Akkadian kings, stories about Creation and World Order, and destruction. The topics covered range from the quest for immortality, epic heroes and monsters, sexuality and love. The goal of this class is to get an overview of Hittite literature, as "defined" by the Hittites themselves, in the wider historical-cultural context of the Ancient Near East.

Some of the most important questions we can ask ourselves in reading ancient texts are: why were they written down, why were they kept, for whom were they intended, and what do the answers to these questions apart from the primary content of the texts themselves tell us about - in our case - Hittite society? This course employs English translations of ancient Egyptian literary texts to explore the genres, conventions and techniques of ancient Egyptian literature. Discussions of texts examine how the ancient Egyptians conceptualized and constructed their equivalent of literature, as well as the fuzzy boundaries and subtle interplay between autobiography, history, myth and fiction.

This sequence introduces three great empires of the ancient world. Each course in the sequence focuses on one empire, with attention to the similarities and differences among the empires being considered. By exploring the rich legacy of documents and monuments that these empires produced, students are introduced to ways of understanding imperialism and its cultural and societal effects—both on the imperial elites and on those they conquered. This course introduces students to the Hittite Empire of ancient Anatolia. In existence from roughly BCE, and spanning across modern Turkey and beyond, the Hittite Empire is one of the oldest and largest empires of the ancient world. We will be examining their history and their political and cultural accomplishments through analysis of their written records - composed in Hittite, the world's first recorded Indo-European language - and their archaeological remains.

In the process, we will also be examining the concept of "empire" itself: What is an empire, and how do anthropologists, archaeologists, and historians study this unique kind of political formation? The objective of this course is to understand the society and culture of this bygone Empire whose legacy continues, in one way or another, in some twenty-five contemporary successor states from the Balkans to the Arabian Peninsula. The course is designed as an introduction to the Ottoman World with a focus on the cultural history of the Ottoman society. It explores identities and mentalities, customs and rituals, status of minorities, mystical orders and religious establishments, literacy and the use of the public sphere. For most of the duration of the New Kingdom BC , the ancient Egyptians were able to establish a vast empire and becoming one of the key powers within the Near East.

This course will investigate in detail the development of Egyptian foreign policies and military expansion which affected parts of the Near East and Nubia. We will examine and discuss topics such as ideology, imperial identity, political struggle and motivation for conquest and control of wider regions surrounding the Egyptian state as well as the relationship with other powers and their perspective on Egyptian rulers as for example described in the Amarna letters.

Semitic Languages, Cultures, and Civilizations I. This course looks at the attestations of Semitic, the development of the language family and its individual languages, the connection of language spread and political expansions with the development of empires and nation states which can lead to the development of different language strata , the interplay of linguistic innovation and archaism in connection with innovative centers and peripheries, and the connection and development of language and writing.

This course explores various peoples of the ancient Near East from the third through the first millennium BC. The shared characteristic of those peoples is their use of Semitic languages. The focus is on major cultural traditions that later become of interest for the modern Middle East and for the Western world. This course provides a background to understand contemporary problems in a historical context. This includes a close examination and discussion of representative ancient sources, as well as readings in modern scholarship to help us think of interpretative frameworks and questions.

Ancient sources include literary, historical, and legal documents. The course studies how various groups in the Middle East imagined the ancient Semitic heritage of the region. We examine how Semitic languages in particular, Arabic and Hebrew came to be regarded as the national markers of the peoples of the Middle East. We likewise explore the ways in which archeologists, historians, novelists, and artists emphasized the connectivity between past and present, and the channels through which their new ideas were transmitted.

The class thus highlights phenomena like nationalism, reform, and literary and print capitalism in both Hebrew and Arabic as experienced in the Middle East. This sequence surveys the main trends in the political history of the Islamic world, with some attention to economic, social, and intellectual history. This course covers the period from ca. We also study the foundation of the great Islamic regional empires of the Ottomans, Safavids, and Moghuls.

Instructor s : Holly Shissler Terms Offered: Spring Prerequisite s : Not open to first-year students Note s : This course does not apply to the medieval studies major or minor. This sequence explores the thought and literature of the Islamic world from the coming of Islam in the seventh century C. Including historical framework to establish chronology and geography, the course focuses on key aspects of Islamic intellectual history: scripture, law, theology, philosophy, literature, mysticism, political thought, historical writing, and archaeology.

In addition to lectures and secondary background readings, students read and discuss samples of key primary texts, with a view to exploring Islamic civilization in the direct voices of the people who participated in creating it. All readings are in English translation. No prior background in the subject is required. This course sequence meets the general education requirement in civilization studies. Islamic Thought and Literature I. Islamic Thought and Literature II.

Through primary texts, secondary sources and lectures, we will trace the cultural, social, religious, political and institutional evolution through the period of the Fatimids, the Crusades, the Mongol invasions, and the "gunpowder empires" Ottomans, Safavids, Mughals. It explores Muslim intellectuals' engagement with tradition and modernity in the realms of religion, politics, literature, and law. We discuss debates concerning the role of religion in a modern society, perceptions of Europe and European influence, the challenges of maintain religious and cultural authenticity, and Muslim views of nation-states and nationalism in the Middle East.

We also give consideration to the modern developments of transnational jihadism and the Arab Spring. SALC This sequence introduces core themes in the formation of culture and society in South Asia from the early modern period until the present. Introduction to the Civilizations of South Asia I. The second quarter analyzes the colonial period i. Students may also complete their civilization studies requirement by participating in one of the College's Study Abroad programs. For more information about these programs, consult the Study Abroad section of this catalog or visit study-abroad.

The University of Chicago. Civilization Studies Toggle Navigation. Search Catalog. Civilization Studies Courses on Campus Civilization Studies Abroad Programs Civilization studies provide an in-depth examination of the development and accomplishments of one of the world's great civilizations through direct encounters with significant and exemplary documents and monuments. CRES Colonizations I. Colonizations II. Colonizations III.

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