✍️✍️✍️ Justin Hunter Domestic Cat Analysis

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Justin Hunter Domestic Cat Analysis



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You must break down the teaching process into small incremental steps, where each step is easily mastered. Because cats are easily demotivated, the training session must be set up so the cat has a very high probability of doing the right thing. To start with, you look for something a cat does naturally and which can be shaped into the desired behaviour. Victoria Voith described how a cat was taught to jump over a fly swatter using the stepwise approach. At first, the cat was rewarded for walking over a fly swatter placed on the ground. Once it associated the fly swatter with a food reward, the swatter was held a few inches from the floor and the cat encouraged to step over it for the reward.

Each time the cat mastered the new development, the fly swatter was raised until he had to jump over it. Use a hoop instead of a fly swatter and the trick looks even more impressive! Similarly, to teach a cat to jump from stool to stool, first it learns to step from one stool to the next. Over a period of time, the stools are moved further apart until eventually the cat has to jump from one to the other. The same cat learnt to shake hands and even to roll over on command, tricks normally associated with dogs.

Learning to roll over was broken down into steps which got "right first time" and earned the reward. Initially he learnt to lie down when gently pressed between the shoulder blades, something many cats will do naturally but not all, so be careful if you try this at home! The pressing became gentler and gentler until it was just a touch and later just a hand signal. The hand signal was paired with a voice command and after many repetitions, the cat responded to the voice command with no need for any hand signal at all. Once he learnt the lie down command, the trainer gently rolled him over and rewarded him only when he was turned on his back. This was repeated over and over using gentler pushes each time until the cat lay down and rolled over in one move at the voice command.

Each time a new step is introduced, the cat must choose whether to do the additional step and get the reward or whether to stick to the old routine and miss out on a reward. Because the steps are small and the shift is gradual, the cat doesn't have a chance to get frustrated or to make too many wrong choices. Cats have learnt some very complex tricks in this way and one Russian trainer has a whole stage act where cats leap, walk along parallel bars and even "walk" upside down beneath a pole wild margays do this on tree branches so it is a natural feline behaviour albeit one not often seen in domestic cats.

They walk on their hindlegs and even do handstands - balancing on their forelegs on their trainer's hand. Just like dogs, cats and their big cat relatives have been taught to jump through fiery hoops and balance on rolling cylinders. If anything, the cat's greater agility and their retractile claws allows them to do tricks that dogs cannot do. As scientific researchers have discovered, the trick is finding a way to motivate a cat to perform tricks or tests on command.

Other tricks pet owners have taught their cats include drinking from a beaker held between the front paws and eating using short chopsticks fastened to a front paw. One helpful trick small hand-reared kittens sometimes learn is to lie on their backs, sucking from a feeding bottle propped on their hind-legs legs and hugged by their front legs! In the USA, cat agility classes are taking off at some shows in a similar way to dog agility classes and many cats are showing that they enjoy jumping through hoops just as much as dogs do some cats go round a second time - without the owner - just for the fun of it.

Once a cat has learnt a trick, he must learn that he won't get a reward every single time. Eventually he will only get an occasional reward, but intermittently rewarded behaviours are better retained than taking the rewards away in one step. This way the cat learns a general rule of "do this trick and I might get a reward" and he keeps on performing, rather than thinking the rules of the game have suddenly changed in which case he will not want to play any more.

One trick which several cat owners have taught their pets is how to use the human toilet. I have seen several "how to" articles on this and several devices mostly round litter trays which slot under the toilet seat to aid the process. Animal behaviourist and vet Benjamin Hart described one method in his books and articles; articles and adverts in cat magazines describe similar methods. They all depend on gradually modifying the cat's normal litter tray habits. One or two cats bypass the training altogether and use the toilet without prompting and at the other end of the scale, some cats are too wary of the toilet to learn to use it consistently. First the cat learns to use its litter tray next to the toilet.

Then, over a period of time, the litter tray is raised up to the level of the toilet seat so the cat gets used to being above ground level. Then the tray is placed on the toilet lid until the cat gets used to being on the toilet itself. Then it learns to use the actual toilet. A popular method is to fix a shallow litter pan underneath the toilet seat, or to attach a sheet of waxed cardboard under the seat using wires. Over time the litter is gradually removed and parts of the litter tray are cut away until finally the entire bottom of the litter tray is removed.

This is where the commercial training set is useful as you just need to pull pieces out of slots to create the holes, otherwise a stiff cardboard tray is needed and there is the risk of it becoming soggy and giving way under the cat's weight. Like a child's training seat, usually you start with a circular central hole which increases in diameter. By the time the litter pan has holes in it, the cat will normally have learnt to perch on the toilet seat itself, not least because the litter pan feels unsteady. Most cats will slip off the seat and into the toilet bowl at least once and will need re-training to restore their confidence.

Tool use is associated with primates and some birds, but J Justin Lancaster, PhD, believes he has witnessed tool use in a domestic cat in San Diego in He witnessed a grey domestic longhair called Sasha using an absorbent hair scrunchy to moisten her kibble dry cat food. The scrunchies, belonging to his daughter, were kept in a drawer which Sasha learnt to open by standing on the worktop above the drawer. Sasha hooked the scrunchy with a claw, put it into her mouth and carried it into the kitchen. Sasha deliberately dropped the absorbent scrunchy into her water bowl and dabbed it with her paw.

She then fished it out and dropped it onto her kibble. She then ate the kibble that had been moistened by the wet scrunchy. The repeated retrieval and use of a scrunchy as a sponge to make kibble more palatable qualifies as tool use. Sasha, adopted as a kitten in , died in Jennifer Murray, who witnessed learning through observation in one of her cats, now has another tortie cat, this time a feline magpie who stores toys and small stolen items such as paper money of bottle caps.

This cat likes to put objects into other objects or specific locations for example toys are placed in shoes or added to the hoard in the linen closet. She also likes fishing toys out of bags this is a natural behaviour so Jennifer put toys into freezer bags to indulge this behaviour. She enjoyed chasing the whole bag of toys rather than each toy individually and this progressed through fetching plastic bags to be filled then to putting toys in the bag and fetching the filled bag - making her possibly the only "tool-using" cat to use a bag to carry several toys at once! When the food bowl is empty, she will retrieve an empty cat food bag from the recycling container and take it to Jennifer as a hint that food is required. As well as associating the bag with a full foodbowl, the smell of of cat food would have attracted her to the empty bag and she already knew that fetching items to Jennifer results in a positive outcome.

Again the cat's behaviour is positively reinforced if the food bowl is filled. No wonder owners sometimes feel they are being trained by their cats. So do cats think? They don't think in the human sense of the term, but apart from some hard-wired reflexes they perform mental processing on incoming information and make decisions on how to act. They have an internal representation of the physical world, they comprehend certain physical laws that objects don't cease to exist when out of sight , they have a good sense of time, they can identify other cats, a number of humans and a range of objects. These are the sort of things most humans do without conscious effort. Intelligence is defined by human beings and is judged against human abilities. Children learn to look where someone is pointing.

With cats, if you point at an object, your cat looks at your finger, not at where your finger is pointing. To attract a cat's attention to an object, you have to tap the object itself. One measure of intelligence is self-awareness. The test for self-awareness is to see how an animal reacts to its own reflection. Humans and higher primates recognise their own image in a mirror. If you put some paint powder on a child's nose or a chimp's face and let it look in a mirror, the child or chimp will rub the blob on its own face, not the mirror. Cats first check behind the mirror for the strange cat, but soon learn that the mirror cat is not real and ignore it learning to ignore it is necessary, otherwise its own reflection in a puddle might stop the cat from drinking.

Unlike humans and higher primates, they do not appear to understand that the mirror cat is itself. Sacha Scofield [personal correspondence] suggests an alternative view on feline self awareness. She suggests that the mirror test does not accommodate the different mindsets of social and non-social subjects. The supposition is that cats lose interest in their reflection in the mirror because it appears to be another cat which doesn't interact with the subject.

Sacha believes that cats understand mirrors to be reflections of the real world, and that they will use mirrors to observe objects that that are out of their line of sight. Sacha has observed her own cats apparently watching each other, and watching their owner, via a mirror. In some cases, the cat has met the eyes of its owner in the reflection and meowed a greeting, demonstrating recognition of the image. After moving house, the older cat 15 year old Flossy used the mirror more frequently to observe other household members. She can see from the lounge to the bedroom and vice versa using the mirror. She also uses it to observe me in bed, usually when she wants attention. She seems the use the mirror to compensate for her deafness i.. To test whether a cat properly understands a mirror would involve sitting a cat in front of a mirror and the researcher standing behind it.

Does the cat respond to the researcher's reflected gestures, or does it turn round and respond to the researcher? Because the cat may also react to sounds made by the researcher while gesturing, this is harder to assess. Sacha proposes that cats are uninterested in their own image because they are not interested in their own external appearance.

Animals that recognise their own reflections, such as humans, monkeys and parrots, are social animals whose mating and social opportunities rely on their physical attractiveness to other members their species. Humans with little interest in hierarchy or social interaction often have a correspondingly low interest in their own appearance conversely, there are plenty of stereotypes of "vain" mirror-gazing men and women. Feline hierarchy, such as it is, is based on fitness and prowess and not on attractiveness. Unlike visually oriented species such as humans, monkeys and parrots, cats perceive the world through a mix of sound, scent, touch whiskers and sight.

They are more adept at seeing movement patterns than static objects. She argues that even if the cat recognises its own reflected image, as a non-social animal it may simply lack the motivation to react to any changes in its own appearance viewed in the mirror. To show the reader the cat is cunning he draw him with sharp teeth and very narrow eyes. In the beginning of the story James brought a sick cat home and started to take care of it. He asked his parents if he could continue to care for the cat instead of giving the cat to Dr. Milk, who is a veterinarian that was planning on taking care of the stray cat. His parents agreed and let James keep the cat, and named him Smokey. In the middle of the story, he did anything to not let anyone put Smoky down. The textbook explains that a case study is a type of psychological research that is more in depth and focuses on an individual or a small group of people.

If you replace the world people with domestic housecats you can see that it was a case study. Also, contained within chapter two is a description of survey research. There are many factors that can contribute to gastrointestinal problems, but this one is most often caused by the animal 's diet, and vets say that a low-fat, high-fiber diet works best for upset tummies.

Check the nutrition facts on your dog or cat food—is there a lot of wheat or soy? Make sure your furry friend drinks plenty of water as well, as this can help keep things "moving" to clear out the. Guests are typically welcome in a home, unless they come with eight legs or invade the residence without the owner 's permission. If you have intruders that you wish to eliminate, give us a call. We 'll give them their walking papers and ensure they don 't return. For some, ants are the issue, but others have crickets that keep them up all night. From spiders to mosquitoes, we handle them all, and we all deal with rodents and wildlife, thus we are the only name you need to know. Equivocado was was the leader of the two dogs and El Orador anointed himself as the messenger.

And here we are fighting wars to make due and all we have are small huts to live in and battle. Most spider bites occur when the spider is surprised or pressed into self defense: not as they casually waltz across your body at night. Those so-called spider bites you wake up with every night? Most likely fleas or other blood sucking parasites. Myth: People Swallow Spiders While Sleeping Reality: Just about everybody has heard the old myth about how they swallow eight or more spiders while they sleep every night.

This myth revolves states that spiders mistake the mouth for a safe enclosure, crawl inside for protection, and are invariably swallowed. The declawing of cats has become accepted by society and is very common. Most people who sign up their feline friends for this amputation are not aware it is an amputation or educated on the damaging side effects; they simply want to save their furniture and avoid getting scratched. Having the tips of your fingers at the first joint below your fingernail cut off is equivalent to declawing a cat, therefore, it is an amputation. Some of the many side effects that go along with declawing include behavioral problems, changes in personality, pain, and death.

Cats are interesting animals. They are mainly meat eaters although their owners feed them a diet of dry cat food that contributes to many illnesses. Contrastingly, in Michael W. Big Mama is a weak and fat woman who can hardly breathe. Sometimes she is like an old cat, teetering around Big Daddy; and sometimes she is like a kitty, following and obeying him. Maggie is the one who is the most similar to a cat in this play. Cats are capricious, and Maggie performs various of characteristics in the play.

Cats like to tidy their fur and pay attention to their appearance all the time. It will take it a long time to be entertained by this toy. Beside this a good hide and seek interactive puzzle like the squirrel fun and a dog treat dispenser will go a long way in keeping your bored dog busy. A reflection on the walls, and floor, from a crystal hanging on the window may keep your pet occupied for hours. Mental challenges Give your cat a mental challenge with cat puzzles or create your own puzzler. It is these quirks, however, that make them so cute besides the health issues.

Sometimes these cats are opposites; it is a good thing that opposites attract because I would not want a cat fight on my hands. I could never begin to choose a favorite. They are unique in their own way, and I love everything about both of. For example, the narrator and Sally undergo an id to ego change after realizing how the destruction of the Cat is affecting themselves, the Fish, and the house. The Cat changes from the id to superego personality after realizing his destruction and how it is affecting the other symbolic characters and decides to take responsibility for his actions and clean up the house that was a mess because of his actions.

Hans answered tricky maths questions including Cyclical Marketing Case Study by tapping out Justin Hunter Domestic Cat Analysis answer with his hoof. It is these quirks, however, that make them so cute Justin Hunter Domestic Cat Analysis the health issues. Justin Hunter Domestic Cat Analysis sheds are filled Justin Hunter Domestic Cat Analysis expensive priced cats as well as kittens.